Cell Biology

Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2009 Views Jan 5, 2022

Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that keep in check the health of neighboring cells through a large array of intrinsically expressed germline-coded receptors. Most importantly, CD16 is a low affinity Fc receptor for IgG that mediates the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells, bridging the innate and adaptive immunities. There has been a significant interest in genetically engineering NK cells to enhance its ADCC, with the ultimate goal to produce off-the-shelf NK cell therapy products that can be combined with target-specific monoclonal antibodies to improve clinical outcomes. Previous protocols of ADCC assays use complex cell-based antigen-antibody models, which are both costly and time-consuming. This current protocol is devoid of target cells and uses plate-bound immobilized anti-CD16 antibodies as the trigger. It greatly shortens the experimental time, while faithfully evaluating NK cells ADCC.

Graphic abstract:

Workflow of stimulating NK cells via CD16 by plate-bound anti-CD16 mAb.

0 Q&A 3793 Views Jan 5, 2021
Studying monocytic cells in isolated systems in vitro contributes significantly to the understanding of innate immune physiology. Functional assays produce read outs which can be used to measure responses to selected stimuli, such as pathogen exposure, antigen loading, and cytokine stimulation. Integration of these results with high quality in vivo models allows for the development of therapeutics which target these cell populations. Current methodologies to quantify phagocytic function of monocytic cells in vitro either measure phagocytic activity of individual cells (average number of beads or particles/cell), or a population outcome (% cells that contain phagocytosed material). Here we address technical challenges and shortcomings of these methods and present a protocol for collecting and analyzing data derived from a functional assay which measures phagocytic activity of macrophage and macrophage-like cells. We apply this method to two different experimental conditions, and compare to existing work flows. We also provide an online tool for users to upload and analyze data using this method.
0 Q&A 4081 Views Aug 20, 2020
Wound, biomaterial, and surgical infections are all characterized by a localized and excessive inflammation, motivating the development of in vivo methods focused on the analysis of local immune events. However, current inflammation models, such as the commonly used in vivo models of endotoxin-induced inflammation are based on systemic, usually intraperitoneal, administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), causing endotoxin shock. Here, we describe a model of LPS-induced local inflammation in NF-κB-RE-Luc reporter mice. LPS, alone or with added therapeutic substances, is delivered locally via a hydrogel which is deposited subcutaneously, providing a spatially defined environment, enabling in vivo bioimaging analyses of local NF-κB activation. Evaluation of drug efficacy can be analyzed longitudinally in the same mouse, and using fluorescently labeled drugs, local drug deposition can be simultaneously analyzed, and correlated to the site of inflammation. Finally, the protocol can also be used to study retention and systemic release of the drug from locally deposited gels and other biomaterials.
0 Q&A 8058 Views Mar 5, 2018
Due to its particulate material, mono-sodium urate (MSU) crystals are potent activators of the NOD-like receptor NLRP3. Upon activation, NLRP3 induces the formation of inflammasome complexes, which lead to the production and release of mature IL-1β. Bioactive IL-1β is a potent activator of innate immune responses and promotes recruitment of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils from the blood into damaged/inflamed tissues. This protocol describes a method to study in vivo inflammasome activation via intraperitoneal injection of MSU crystals. MSU-injection results in a drastic increase of intraperitoneal IL-1β levels, promoting neutrophil infiltration. Early-stage neutrophil numbers correlate with the amount of released IL-1β and can be used as a read-out for the extent of in vivo inflammasome activation. In addition, this protocol might also be used as a sterile peritonitis model, to investigate mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum, or as a means to obtain large numbers of in vivo activated neutrophils.
0 Q&A 7762 Views Aug 20, 2017
The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cellular therapies are believed to be mediated primarily by the ability of MSCs to suppress inflammation associated with chronic or acute injury, infection, autoimmunity, and graft-versus-host disease. To specifically address the effects of frictional force caused by blood flow, or wall shear stress (WSS), on human MSC immunomodulatory function, we have utilized microfluidics to model WSS at the luminal wall of arteries. Anti-inflammatory potency of MSCs was subsequently quantified via measurement of TNF-α production by activated murine splenocytes in co-culture assays. The TNF-α suppression assay serves as a reproducible platform for functional assessment of MSC potency and demonstrates predictive value as a surrogate assay for MSC therapeutic efficacy.

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