Stem Cell


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 390 Views Nov 20, 2023

The blastocysts consist of dozens of cells of three distinct lineages: epiblast (Epi), trophoblast (TB), and primitive endoderm (PrE). All embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are derived from Epi, TB, and PrE. Stem cell lines representing preimplantation Epi and TB have been established and are known as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Extraembryonic endoderm cells (XENCs) constitute a cell line that has been established from PrE. Although in vivo, PrE gives rise to visceral endoderm (VE), parietal endoderm (PE), and marginal zone endoderm (MZE); XENCs, on blastocyst injection into chimeras, primarily contribute to the distal region of PE. Here, we provide a comprehensive protocol for the establishment of fully potent primitive endoderm stem cell (PrESC) lines. PrESCs are established and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells in a serum-free medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4), heparin, CHIR99021, and platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA). PrESCs co-express markers indicative of pluripotency and endoderm lineage commitment, exhibiting characteristics akin to those of PrE. On transplantation of PrESCs into blastocysts, they demonstrate a high efficiency in contributing to VE, PE, and MZE. PrESCs serve as a valuable model for studying PrE, sharing similarities in gene expression profiles and differentiation potential. PrESCs constitute a pivotal cornerstone for in vitro analysis of early developmental mechanisms and for studies of embryo reconstitution in vitro, particularly in conjunction with ESCs and TSCs.

Key features

• Establishment and maintenance of primitive endoderm stem cell (PrESCs) capable of recapitulating the developmental prowess inherent to PrE.

• Offering a source of PrE lineage for embryo-like organoid reconstitution studies.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 8269 Views Aug 5, 2017
The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line is an important model system for the study of germ stem cells. Wild-type C. elegans germ cells are syncytial and therefore cannot be isolated in in vitro cultures. In contrast, the germ cells from tumorous mutants can be fully cellularized and isolated intact from the mutant animals. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the isolation of germ cells from tumorous mutants that allows the germ cells to be maintained for extended periods in an in vitro primary culture. This protocol has been adapted from Chaudhari et al., 2016.

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