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0 Q&A 2806 Views Jan 20, 2021

Antibacterial coatings have currently gained great importance in biomedical technology investigations. Because of the spatial arrangement of the film coatings, evaluation of antibacterial activity presents a new challenge regarding traditional bacterial counting methods. In this protocol, four clinically relevant pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated on titania mesostructured thin film coatings for 24 h. Then, cell viability was studied considering three methods: counting of the number of colony forming units (CFU), live/dead staining, and quantification of extracellular DNA in suspension. Firstly, bacterial count was determined by the standard plate-count technique. Secondly, bacteria membrane integrity was evaluated by utilization of two fluorescent dyes, which allow distinction between live (membrane intact) and dead (membrane disrupted) bacteria. Lastly, extracellular DNA was quantified by spectrophotometry. In this manner, the three aforementioned techniques enabled the study of bacterial viability by qualitative and quantitative analyses.

0 Q&A 3794 Views Aug 20, 2020
The ability of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to disseminate into tissues is promoted by a switch from budding to invasive hyphal growth. This morphological transition is stimulated by multiple environmental factors that can vary at different sites of infection. To identify genes that promote invasive growth, C. albicans mutants can be screened for defects in growing invasively into solid agar medium as a substitute for studying tissue invasion. This in vitro approach has advantages in that it permits the media conditions to be varied to mimic different host environments. In addition, the concentration of agar can be varied to determine the effects of altering the rigidity of the matrix into which the cells invade, as this provides a better indicator of invasive growth than the ability to form hyphae in a liquid culture. Testing under multiple conditions can be used to identify mutant cells with the strongest defects. Therefore, protocols and media for analyzing invasive growth of C. albicans under different conditions will be described that are appropriate for testing a single strain or high-throughput analysis of a collection of mutant C. albicans strains.
0 Q&A 5248 Views Jan 20, 2019
Alcohol consumption has diverse and well-documented effects on the human immune system and its ability to defend against infective agents. While pulmonary related infections can occur in healthy humans, binge alcohol use is recognized as a major health risk factor (Nelson et al., 1991). Although binge alcohol consumption has been considered as a risk factor for the development of pulmonary infections, no experimental studies have investigated the outcomes of a single binge alcohol exposure during infection. A key assay to assess the effects of a single binge alcohol exposure on the interactions between bacteria and alveolar macrophage is a binge alcohol intracellular invasion and killing assay. MH-S alveolar macrophages (AMs) are exposed to a single binge alcohol dose prior to infection for 3 h. The macrophage monolayer is then infected to allow for engulfment, followed by removal of extracellular bacteria to assess the intracellular killing capacity of infected macrophages over time. We have utilized this assay to demonstrate that low alcohol exposure significantly suppressed the uptake and killing of less virulent Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thailandensis) by AMs. More recently we found that activated AMs with interferon (IFN)-γ incubated in alcohol (0.08%) for 3 h prior to infection showed significantly lower bacterial uptake at 2 and 8 h post infection, which lead to B. thailandensis survival and a ~2.5-fold replication increase compared to controls (Jimenez et al., 2017). These results provide insights into binge alcohol consumption, a culturally prevalent risk factor, as a predisposing factor for pulmonary bacterial infections. This assay can be adapted to other bacterial species and host cell types to assess tissue specific effects of alcohol during infection.
0 Q&A 6914 Views Dec 5, 2017
Numerous oncogenes have been identified to cause leukemia. For example, chromosomal translocation generates various fusion genes of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene and a partner gene in leukemia, whose gene products transform primary myeloid progenitors into an immortalized state. To characterize the transforming ability of leukemic oncogenes, researchers in the field have developed an ex vivo murine myeloid transformation assay using retroviral gene transduction and its protocol has been improved over the past 10 years. Here, we provide the detailed procedure for this assay.
0 Q&A 27833 Views Jun 20, 2017
Soft agar colony formation assay is established to estimate the anchorage-independent growth ability of cells. In this assay, a bottom layer of agar with complete media is poured and solidified first, followed by an upper layer containing a specified number of cells suspended in medium-agar mixture. After two weeks of incubation, the number of colonies will be counted, serving as an indicator of malignancy of tumor cells.



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