Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Purification of the Bacterial Amyloid “Curli” from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Detection of Curli from Infected Host Tissues
    [Abstract]

    Microbiologists are learning to appreciate the importance of “functional amyloids” that are produced by numerous bacterial species and have impacts beyond the microbial world. These structures are used by bacteria to link together, presumably to increase survival, protect against harsh conditions, and perhaps to influence cell-cell

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    Ex vivo Human Skin Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1
    Authors:  Nydia C. De La Cruz, Maureen Möckel, Lisa Wirtz and Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf, date: 05/05/2022, view: 473, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Although herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-studied virus, how the virus invades its human host via skin and mucosa to reach its receptors and initiate infection remains an open question. For studies of HSV-1 infection in skin, mice have been used as animal models. Murine skin infection can be induced after injection or scratching of the

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    Production of Recombinant Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Detection of HBV in Infected Human Liver Organoids
    Authors:  Tanvir Hossain, Shahla Romal and Tokameh Mahmoudi, date: 04/20/2022, view: 539, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The absence of long term, primary untransformed in vitro models that support hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and replication have hampered HBV pre-clinical research, which was reflected in the absence of a curative therapy until recently. One of the limitations for in vitro HBV research has been the absence of high titer and pure recombinant HBV

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    Generation, Maintenance and HBV Infection of Human Liver Organoids
    Authors:  Shahla Romal, Tanvir Hossain and Tokameh Mahmoudi, date: 03/20/2022, view: 1109, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a major public health problem infecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. Despite the availability of a preventive vaccine and anti-viral therapies, chronic HBV infection remains a major health issue because it increases the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Three-dimensional Models of the Nasopharynx for the Study of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
    [Abstract]

    The ubiquitous and cancer-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nearly all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Nasopharyngeal tissue is comprised of both pseudostratified and stratified epithelium, which are modeled in three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture. The cellular origin of EBV-associated NPC is as yet unknown, but both

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    Amber Suppression Technology for Mapping Site-specific Viral-host Protein Interactions in Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Nur Firdaus Isa, Olivier Bensaude and Shona Murphy, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1287, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Probing the molecular interactions of viral-host protein complexes to understand pathogenicity is essential in modern virology to help the development of antiviral therapies. Common binding assays, such as co-immunoprecipitation or pull-downs, are helpful in investigating intricate viral-host proteins interactions. However, such assays may miss

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    Quantification of Bacterial Loads in Caenorhabditis elegans
    [Abstract]

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a ubiquitous free-living nematode that feeds on bacteria. The organism was introduced into a laboratory setting in the 1970s and has since gained popularity as a model to study host-bacteria interactions. One advantage of using C. elegans is that its intestine can be colonized by the bacteria on which it feeds.

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    Rhizoctonia solani Infection Assay of Young Sugar Beet and Arabidopsis plantlets
    Authors:  Fredrik Dölfors, Louise Holmquist, Georgios Tzelepis and Christina Dixelius, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1443, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus, which rarely produces any spores in culture. Hence, all inoculation procedures are based on mycelia, often as a coat on cereal kernels, placed in close vicinity to the plant to be infected. In this protocol, an inoculation method is described where the fungus is first allowed to infest a perlite-maize

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    From 3D to 2D: Harmonization of Protocols for Two-dimensional Cultures on Cell Culture Inserts of Intestinal Organoids from Various Species
    [Abstract]

    In the expanding field of intestinal organoid research, various protocols for three- and two-dimensional organoid-derived cell cultures exist. Two-dimensional organoid-derived monolayers are used to overcome some limitations of three-dimensional organoid cultures. They are increasingly used also in infection research, to study physiological

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    Bacterial Infection with Listeria monocytogenes in Mice and Subsequent Analysis of Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses
    Authors:  Bojana Jakic, Janine Kimpel, William J. Olson, Verena Labi and Natascha Hermann-Kleiter, date: 12/05/2021, view: 1353, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa can cause acute and chronic infections in their hosts. The intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes serves as a model pathogen to assess the molecular mechanisms regulating CD8 T cell activation, differentiation, and function. We set up an experimental workflow to investigate

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