Biological Sciences

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Bacterial Growth Curve Measurements with a Multimode Microplate Reader
    Authors:  Ariel T. Rogers, Kaitlin R. Bullard, Akash C. Dod and Yong Wang, date: 05/05/2022, view: 695, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Bacterial studies based on growth curves are common in microbiology and related fields. Compared to the standard photometer and cuvette based protocols, bacterial growth curve measurements with microplate readers provide better temporal resolution, higher efficiency, and are less laborious, while analysis and interpretation of the microplate-based

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    Listeria innocua Biofilm Assay Using NanoLuc Luciferase
    Authors:  Aleš Berlec, Nika Janež, Meta Sterniša, Anja Klančnik and Jerica Sabotič, date: 02/05/2022, view: 916, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Biofilms serve as a bacterial survival strategy, allowing bacteria to persist under adverse environmental conditions. The non-pathogenic Listeria innocua is used as a surrogate organism for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, because they share genetic and physiological similarities and can be used in a Biosafety Level 1 laboratory.

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    Rapid in vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Antimicrobial Formulations Using Bioluminescent Pathogenic Bacteria
    Authors:  Artur Schmidtchen and Manoj Puthia, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1600, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Basic and translational research needs rapid methods to test antimicrobial formulations. Bioluminescent bacteria and advanced imaging systems capable of acquiring bioluminescence enable us to quickly and longitudinally evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobials. Conventional approaches, such as radial diffusion and viable count assays, are

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    Quantification of Bacterial Loads in Caenorhabditis elegans
    [Abstract]

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a ubiquitous free-living nematode that feeds on bacteria. The organism was introduced into a laboratory setting in the 1970s and has since gained popularity as a model to study host-bacteria interactions. One advantage of using C. elegans is that its intestine can be colonized by the bacteria on which it feeds.

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    Bacterial Infection and Hypersensitive Response Assays in Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae Pathosystem
    Authors:  Minhang Yuan and Xiu-Fang Xin, date: 12/20/2021, view: 1214, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae pathosystem has been used as an important model system for studying plant-microbe interactions, leading to many milestones and breakthroughs in the understanding of plant immune system and pathogenesis mechanisms. Bacterial infection and plant disease assessment are key experiments in the studies of

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    Determination of Fungal Tolerance Index to Heavy Metals and Heavy Metal Resistance Tests
    Author:  Rosa Paulina Calvillo-Medina, date: 11/05/2021, view: 946, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Fungal metallo-tolerance has been described in different species and plays an important role in bioremediation of contaminated environments. Metallo-tolerance is mainly documented by microdilution assays and agar well diffusion methods using equipment that can be expensive. The tolerance index can be calculated to determine the efficiency of a

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    Simple Methods for the Preparation of Colloidal Chitin, Cell Free Supernatant and Estimation of Laminarinase
    Author:  Ananthamurthy Koteshwara, date: 10/05/2021, view: 1482, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Colloidal chitin (CC) is a common substrate used in research work involving chitin-active enzymes (chitinases). Cell free supernatant (CFS) is prepared from fermented broth. Preparation of CC and CFS usually involve large amounts of liquid, which must be separated from the solids. This necessitates the use of a large volume centrifugation

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    An Inexpensive Imaging Platform to Record and Quantitate Bacterial Swarming
    Authors:  Weijie Chen, Sridhar Mani and Jay X. Tang, date: 09/20/2021, view: 1263, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Bacterial swarming refers to a rapid spread, with coordinated motion, of flagellated bacteria on a semi-solid surface (Harshey, 2003). There has been extensive study on this particular mode of motility because of its interesting biological and physical relevance, e.g., enhanced antibiotic resistance (Kearns, 2010) and turbulent collective motion

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    Glucose Starvation, Magnesium Ion Starvation, and Bile Stress Assays
    Authors:  Aryashree Arunima and Mrutyunjay Suar, date: 09/20/2021, view: 1035, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a leading causative pathogen for food-borne gastroenteritis. During its course of infection, it confronts myriads of physiological barriers inside the host, such as nutrient deprivation, low micronutrient availability, and toxicity from bile salts, to promote bacterial survival and

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    Development and Quantitation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms after in vitro Cultivation in Flow-reactors
    Authors:  Yingdan Zhang, Jingru Zhao, Hang Cheng, Jing Wang, Liang Yang and Haihua Liang, date: 08/20/2021, view: 1124, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Characterization of biofilm formation and metabolic activities is critical to investigating biofilm interactions with environmental factors and illustrating biofilm regulatory mechanisms. An appropriate in vitro model that mimics biofilm in vivo habitats therefore demands accurate quantitation and investigation of biofilm-associated activities.

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