Developmental Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Isolation of Primary Leydig Cells from Murine Testis
    Authors:  Jinlian Liang, Yan Tang, Hanhao Li, Jiaxin Mei, Zhen Cao, Huan Xia, Rufei Huang, Yan Yang and Yadong Huang, date: 11/20/2021, view: 998, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    In males, Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone, which is necessary for testis development, masculinization, and spermatogenesis. Leydig cells are a valuable cellular model for basic research; thus, it is important to develop an improved method for isolation and purification of Leydig cells from testes. The available methods for

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    Gamete Fusion Assay in Mice
    Author:  Naokazu Inoue, date: 11/20/2021, view: 1112, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Gamete fusion, which is the final event of fertilization, is a crucial physiological event in the creation of a new fetus. In mammals, sperm IZUMO1 and oocyte IZUMO1R (JUNO) recognition play a role in triggering this process. Gamete fusion occurs through a complex but steady and unfailing intermolecular reaction because fertilization must ensure

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    Collection of in vivo Capacitated Sperm from Different Locations Along the Reproductive Tract of Time-Mated Female Mice by Microdissection
    Authors:  Lukas Ded and Jean-Ju Chung, date: 10/20/2021, view: 1329, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Mammalian sperm cells are not capable of fertilizing an egg immediately after ejaculation; instead, they must gradually acquire the capacity to fertilize while they travel inside the female reproductive tract. Sperm cells are transported by the muscular activity of the myometrium to the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) before entering the oviduct where

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    Isolation of Primary Cytotrophoblasts From Human Placenta at Term
    Authors:  Arthur Colson, Christophe Louis Depoix, Corinne Hubinont and Frédéric Debiève, date: 10/05/2021, view: 1052, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The placenta is a multifaceted organ, fulfilling critical functions for the fetus and the mother. Therefore, it is a critical regulator of the pregnancy, and its dysfunction leads to diseases, including fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Studying the placenta is a difficult task since its existence is transient, and its structure is

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    Isolation and in vitro Culture of Mouse Oocytes
    Authors:  Jessica Greaney, Goutham Narayanan Subramanian, Yunan Ye and Hayden Homer, date: 08/05/2021, view: 2071, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Females are endowed at birth with a fixed reserve of oocytes, which declines both in quantity and quality with advancing age. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating oocyte quality is crucial for improving the chances of pregnancy success in fertility clinics. In vitro culture systems enable researchers to analyse important molecular and

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    Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans Sperm Number, Size, Activation, and Mitochondrial Content
    Authors:  Amy M. Hammerquist, Chia-An Yen and Sean P. Curran, date: 06/05/2021, view: 2234, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Infertility is a widespread and often unexplained issue. Studying reproduction using C. elegans males offers insight into the influence of individual factors on male fertility in humans. We have created a collection of protocols to assess several aspects of C. elegans sperm quality, including number, size, rate of activation, and mitochondrial

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    Development of a Chemical Reproductive Aging Model in Female Rats
    [Abstract]

    Women are born with an abundant but finite pool of ovarian follicles, which naturally and progressively decreased during their reproductive years until menstrual periods stop permanently (menopause). Perimenopause represents the transition from reproductive to non-reproductive life. It is usually characterized by neuroendocrine, metabolic and

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    Treadmill Running of Mouse as a Model for Studying Influence of Maternal Exercise on Offspring
    Authors:  Song Ah Chae, Jun Seok Son, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jeanene M. de Avila and Min Du, date: 12/05/2020, view: 2262, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Epidemiological studies robustly show the beneficial effects of maternal exercise in reducing maternal birth complications and improving neonatal outcomes, though underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To facilitate mechanistic exploration, a protocol for maternal exercise of mice is established, with the regimen following the exercise

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    Estrous Cycle Monitoring in Mice with Rapid Data Visualization and Analysis
    Authors:  Leanna K. Pantier, Jiang Li and Catherine A. Christian, date: 09/05/2019, view: 6140, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The estrous cycle provides a readout of reproductive health in female laboratory rodents, and estrous cycle stage can be an important physiological variable. Accurate assessment of estrous cycle stage is also important in producing timed pregnancies for developmental studies. Here, we provide a protocol for evaluation of estrous cycle stage ...



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