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0 Q&A 394 Views Jan 5, 2024

Proteolysis is a critical biochemical process yet a challenging field to study experimentally due to the self-degradation of a protease and the complex, dynamic degradation steps of a substrate. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the traditional way for proteolytic studies, yet it is challenging when time-resolved, step-by-step details of the degradation process are needed. We recently found a way to resolve the cleavage site, preference/selectivity of cleavage regions, and proteolytic kinetics by combining site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) of protein substrate, time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, protease immobilization via metal–organic materials (MOMs), and MS. The method has been demonstrated on a model substrate and protease, yet there is a lack of details on the practical operations to carry out our strategy. Thus, this protocol summarizes the key steps and considerations when carrying out the EPR/MS study on proteolytic processes, which can be generalized to study other protein/polypeptide substrates in proteolysis. Details for the experimental operation and cautions of each step are reported with figures illustrating the concepts. This protocol provides an effective approach to understanding the proteolytic process with the advantages of offering time-resolved, residue-level resolution of structural basis underlying the process. Such information is important for revealing the cleavage site and proteolytic mechanisms of unknown proteases. The advantage of EPR, probing the target substrate regardless of the complexities caused by the proteases and their self-degradation, offers a practically effective, rapid, and easy-to-operate approach to studying proteolysis.

Key features

• Combining protease immobilization, EPR, spin labeling, and MS experimental methods allows for the analysis of proteolysis process in real time.

• Reveals cleavage site, kinetics of product generation, and preference of cleavage regions via time-resolved SDSL-EPR.

• MS confirms EPR findings and helps depict the sequences and populations of the cleaved segments in real time.

• The demonstrated method can be generalized to other proteins or polypeptide substrates upon proteolysis by other proteases.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 2125 Views Dec 20, 2021

Site-directed spin labeling in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an attractive approach to measure residue specific dynamics and point-to-point distance distributions in a biomolecule. Here, we focus on the labeling of proteins with a Cu(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complex, by exploiting two strategically placed histidine residues (called the dHis motif). This labeling strategy has emerged as a means to overcome key limitations of many spin labels. Through utilizing the dHis motif, Cu(II)NTA rigidly binds to a protein without depending on cysteine residues. This protocol outlines three major points: the synthesis of the Cu(II)NTA complex; the measurement of continuous wave and pulsed EPR spectra, to verify a successful synthesis, as well as successful protein labeling; and utilizing Cu(II)NTA labeled proteins, to measure distance constraints and backbone dynamics. In doing so, EPR measurements are less influenced by sidechain motion, which influences the breadth of the measured distance distributions between two spins, as well as the measured residue-specific dynamics. More broadly, such EPR-based distance measurements provide unique structural constraints for integrative structural biophysics and complement traditional biophysical techniques, such as NMR, cryo-EM, FRET, and crystallography.

Graphic abstract:

Monitoring the success of Cu(II)NTA labeling.

0 Q&A 1984 Views Oct 20, 2021

Iron-sulfur proteins are primordial catalysts and biological electron carriers that today drive major metabolic pathways across all forms of life. They can access a diversity of oxidation states and can mediate electron transfer over an extended range of reduction potentials spanning more than 1 V. Depending on the protein micro-environment and geometry of ligand, co-ordination the iron-sulfur clusters can occur in different forms [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], HiPIP [4Fe-4S], and [4Fe-4S]. There are several spectroscopic methods available to characterize the composition and electronic configuration of the iron-sulfur clusters, such as optical methods and electron paramagnetic resonance. This paper presents the protocols used to characterize the metal center of Coiled-Coil Iron-Sulfur (CCIS), an artificial metalloprotein containing one [4Fe-4S] cluster. It is expected that these protocols will be of general utility for other iron-sulfur proteins.

0 Q&A 4010 Views May 5, 2021

Understanding the function of oligonucleotides on a molecular level requires methods for studying their structure, conformational changes, and internal dynamics. Various biophysical methods exist to achieve this, including the whole toolbox of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR or ESR) spectroscopy. An EPR method widely used in this regard is Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER), which provides distances in the nanometer range between electron spins in biomolecules with Angstrom precision, without restriction to the size of the biomolecule, and in solution. Since oligonucleotides inherently do not contain unpaired electrons, these have to be introduced in the form of so-called spin labels. Firstly, this protocol describes how nitroxide spin labels can be site-specifically attached to oligonucleotides using “Click” chemistry. The reaction provides little byproducts, high yields, and is conveniently performed in aqueous solution. Secondly, the protocol details how to run the PELDOR experiment, analyze the data, and derive a coarse-grained structure. Here, emphasis is placed on the pitfalls, requirements for a good dataset, and limits of interpretation; thus, the protocol gives the user a guideline for the whole experiment i.e., from spin labeling, via the PELDOR measurement and data analysis, to the final coarse-grained structure.

Graphical abstract:

Schematic overview of the workflow described in this protocol: First, the spin-labeling of RNA is described, which is performed as a "Click"-reaction between the alkyne-functionalized RNA strand and the azide group of the spin label. Next, step-by-step instructions are given for setting up PELDOR/DEER distance measurements on the labeled RNA, and for data analysis. Finally, guidelines are provided for building a structural model from the previously analyzed data.

0 Q&A 6971 Views Apr 5, 2018
One of the most exciting perspectives for studying bio-macromolecules comes from the emerging field of in-cell spectroscopy, which enables to determine the structure and dynamics of bio-macromolecules in the cell. In-cell electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with micro-injection of bio-macromolecules into Xenopus laevis oocytes is ideally suited for this purpose. Xenopus laevis oocytes are a commonly used eukaryotic cell model in different fields of biology, such as cell- and development-biology. For in-cell EPR, the bio-macromolecules of interest are microinjected into the Xenopus laevis oocytes upon site-directed spin labeling. The sample solution is filled into a thin glass capillary by means of Nanoliter Injector and after that microinjected into the dark animal part of the Xenopus laevis oocytes by puncturing the membrane cautiously. Afterwards, three or five microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes, depending on the kind of the final in-cell EPR experiment, are loaded into a Q-band EPR sample tube followed by optional shock-freezing (for experiment in frozen solution) and measurement (either at cryogenic or physiological temperatures) after the desired incubation time. The incubation time is limited due to cytotoxic effects of the microinjected samples and the stability of the paramagnetic spin label in the reducing cellular environment. Both aspects are quantified by monitoring cell morphology and reduction kinetics.

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