Viruses

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Production and Crystallization of Nanobodies in Complex with the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein
    [Abstract]

    The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) on the surface of epithelial cells, leading to fusion, and entry of the virus into the cell. This interaction can be blocked by the binding of llama-derived nanobodies (VHHs) to the RBD, leading to virus neutralisation. Structural

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    Ex vivo Human Skin Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1
    Authors:  Nydia C. De La Cruz, Maureen Möckel, Lisa Wirtz and Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf, date: 05/05/2022, view: 334, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Although herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-studied virus, how the virus invades its human host via skin and mucosa to reach its receptors and initiate infection remains an open question. For studies of HSV-1 infection in skin, mice have been used as animal models. Murine skin infection can be induced after injection or scratching of the

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    Production of Recombinant Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Detection of HBV in Infected Human Liver Organoids
    Authors:  Tanvir Hossain, Shahla Romal and Tokameh Mahmoudi, date: 04/20/2022, view: 405, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The absence of long term, primary untransformed in vitro models that support hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and replication have hampered HBV pre-clinical research, which was reflected in the absence of a curative therapy until recently. One of the limitations for in vitro HBV research has been the absence of high titer and pure recombinant HBV

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    An Optimized Tat/Rev Induced Limiting Dilution Assay for the Characterization of HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs
    [Abstract]

    The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to a rapid reduction in plasma viral load in HIV-1 seropositive subjects. However, when ART is suspended, the virus rebounds due to the presence of a latent viral reservoir. Several techniques have been developed to characterize this latent viral reservoir. Of the various assay formats

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    Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody with Pseudotyped Virus-based Test on HEK-293T hACE2 Cells
    [Abstract]

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are of particular importance because they can prevent binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S protein) to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor present at the surface of human cells, preventing virus entry into the host cells. The gold standard method for detection of

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    Generation, Maintenance and HBV Infection of Human Liver Organoids
    Authors:  Shahla Romal, Tanvir Hossain and Tokameh Mahmoudi, date: 03/20/2022, view: 920, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a major public health problem infecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. Despite the availability of a preventive vaccine and anti-viral therapies, chronic HBV infection remains a major health issue because it increases the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

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    CD8 T Cell Virus Inhibition Assay Protocol
    [Abstract]

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral inhibition assay (VIA) measures CD8+ T cell-mediated inhibition of HIV replication in CD4+ T cells and is increasingly used for clinical testing of HIV vaccines and immunotherapies. Different VIAs that differ in length of CD8:CD4 T cell culture periods (6–13 days), purity of CD4 cultures

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    Three-dimensional Models of the Nasopharynx for the Study of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
    [Abstract]

    The ubiquitous and cancer-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nearly all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Nasopharyngeal tissue is comprised of both pseudostratified and stratified epithelium, which are modeled in three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture. The cellular origin of EBV-associated NPC is as yet unknown, but both

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    A Novel PCR-Based Methodology for Viral Detection Utilizing Mechanical Homogenization
    Authors:  Zachary P. Morehouse, Caleb M. Proctor, Gabriella L. Ryan and Rodney J. Nash, date: 03/05/2022, view: 729, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The impact of viral diseases on human health is becoming increasingly prevalent globally with the burden of disease being shared between resource-rich and poor areas. As seen in the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to establish viral detection techniques applicable to resource-limited areas that provide sensitive and specific

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    Amber Suppression Technology for Mapping Site-specific Viral-host Protein Interactions in Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Nur Firdaus Isa, Olivier Bensaude and Shona Murphy, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1112, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Probing the molecular interactions of viral-host protein complexes to understand pathogenicity is essential in modern virology to help the development of antiviral therapies. Common binding assays, such as co-immunoprecipitation or pull-downs, are helpful in investigating intricate viral-host proteins interactions. However, such assays may miss

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