• Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Cancer Biology

Generation of Mouse Thyroid Calcitonin-producing Cell Tumors from Primary Mouse Tumors Authors:  Shunsuke Kitajima, Fengkai Li and Chiaki Takahashi, date: 12/20/2015, view: 4430, Q&A: 0
Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) are derived from calcitonin-producing cells (C cells) of neuroendocrine origin. Rb heterozygous mice develop low-grade C cell adenocarcinoma following biallelic inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor gene loci. Additional inactivation of another tumor suppressor gene such as Trp53, Arf ...
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Analysis of Murine Lung Tumors by Micro PET-CT Imaging Authors:  Chiara Ambrogio, Juan Antonio Cámara, Patricia Nieto, David Santamaría and Francisca Mulero, date: 12/20/2015, view: 7912, Q&A: 0
Accurate live tumor imaging in mice is now possible by means of high-resolution positron emission tomography (micro-PET) and X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT). By providing a powerful tool to examine biological samples with complex structure in vivo, this technology generated a significant advance in the cancer research field, ...
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Microbiology

[14C] Linoleic Acid Uptake and Fractionation Assay in Vibrio cholerae Authors:  Sarah C. Plecha and Jeffrey H. Withey, date: 12/20/2015, view: 3919, Q&A: 0
The gram-negative curved bacillus Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) causes the severe diarrheal illness cholera. The work presented here is to assess whether unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as linoleic acid, have the potential to directly affect proteins involved in DNA binding because they are able to enter the cell. In this ...
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Characterization of HBV Isolates from Patient Serum Samples and Cloning Authors:  Liang Cao, Chunchen Wu, Kaitao Zhao and Xinwen Chen, date: 12/20/2015, view: 4994, Q&A: 1
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants can lead to vaccine failure, diagnostic failure of HBV detection, increase viral replication and resistance to antiviral agents. To study the biological characteristics of these mutations may contribute to our knowledge on viral pathogenesis. Therefore, it is essential to isolate and characterize HBV strains from ...
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Extraction and Quantification of Alkanes in Cyanobacteria Authors:  Hakuto Kageyama, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha, Sophon Sirisattha, Yoshito Tanaka, Aparat Mahakhant and Teruhiro Takabe, date: 12/20/2015, view: 4828, Q&A: 0
Many species of cyanobacteria accumulate alkanes in their cells. It has been reported that these cyanobacteria accumulate mainly 15 long carbon chain alkane, pentadecane (C15H32), or/and 17 long chain alkane, heptadecane (C17H36). Here we describe a protocol of our laboratory for extraction and ...
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Preparation and Analysis of Crude Autolytic Enzyme Extracts from Staphylococcus aureus Authors:  Filipa Vaz and Sérgio R. Filipe, date: 12/20/2015, view: 7076, Q&A: 0
The metabolism of the cell surface during bacterial cell division involves synthesis and degradation of peptidoglycan (PGN), the major component of the bacterial cell wall. Bacteria have to ensure that their surface remains capable of withstanding high turgor pressures and, simultaneously, that the PGN at their surface is concealed from receptors ...
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Determination of Keto-deoxy-d-manno-8-octanoic acid (KDO) from Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli Authors:  M. R. Sunayana and Manjula Reddy, date: 12/20/2015, view: 8751, Q&A: 0
2-Keto-3-deoxy-octonate (KDO) is an essential constituent of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that forms the outermost leaflet of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. LPS is mainly composed of lipid A, O-antigen and a core oligosaccharide. Two molecules of KDO are present per one molecule of LPS. A proper level of LPS is required to maintain the outer ...
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Transformation of the Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya boryana by Electroporation Authors:  Ryoma Tsujimoto, Hiroya Kotani, Aoi Nonaka, Yuri Miyahara, Yuto Hiraide and Yuichi Fujita, date: 12/20/2015, view: 6298, Q&A: 0
Leptolyngbya boryana (L. boryana) (formerly Plectonema boryanum) is a versatile, filamentous cyanobacterium that has the ability to fix nitrogen under microoxic conditions and to grow heterotrophically with glucose in the dark, providing an excellent system to investigate photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and their ...
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Plant Science

GC-MS-Based Analysis of Chloroform Extracted Suberin-Associated Root Waxes from Arabidopsis and Other Plant Species Authors:  Dylan K. Kosma, Isabel Molina and Owen Rowland, date: 12/20/2015, view: 5841, Q&A: 0
The periderm and exodermis of taproots and tuberous taproots contain an extracellular lipid polymer, suberin, deposited in their cell walls. This polymer is intractable in organic solvents, and is co-deposited with chloroform-extractable waxes. These suberin-associated root waxes are typically composed of alkanes, primary alcohols, fatty acids, ...
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Insertional Mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Authors:  Chia-Hong Tsai and Christoph Benning, date: 12/20/2015, view: 5099, Q&A: 0
The unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) has been used as a reference model for numerous fields of research. Principle research areas are eukaryotic flagellar structure and function, basal bodies (centrioles), cell-cell recognition, cell cycle control, chloroplast biogenesis, phototaxis, ...
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Luminol-based Assay for Detection of Immunity Elicitor-induced Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves Authors:  Nora Gigli Bisceglia, Matteo Gravino and Daniel V. Savatin, date: 12/20/2015, view: 9097, Q&A: 1
In Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the very early immune-related responses induced after elicitor perception is the oxidative burst, i.e., reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ROS production plays different roles in a wide range of biotic and abiotic ...
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Isolation of Tonoplast Vesicles from Tomato Fruit Pericarp Authors:  Christopher J. Snowden, Benjamin Thomas, Charles J. Baxter, J. Andrew C. Smith and Lee J. Sweetlove, date: 12/20/2015, view: 5648, Q&A: 0
This protocol describes the isolation of tonoplast vesicles from tomato fruit. The vesicles isolated using this procedure are of sufficiently high purity for downstream proteomic analysis whilst remaining transport competent for functional assays. The methodology was used to study the transport of amino acids during tomato fruit ripening (Snowden ...
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In vitro CLE Peptide Bioactivity Assay on Plant Roots Authors:  Shiyan Chen and Xiaohong Wang, date: 12/20/2015, view: 5711, Q&A: 0
Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-related proteins play diverse roles in plant growth and development including regulating the development of root meristem. The mature functional forms of CLE peptides are typically 12-13 amino acids (aa) in length that are derived from the conserved C-termini of their precursor proteins. Genes encoding small secreted ...
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Extraction of Apoplastic Wash Fluids and Leaf Petiole Exudates from Leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana Authors:  Takao Araya, Anne Bohner and Nicolaus von Wirén, date: 12/20/2015, view: 7632, Q&A: 0
The long-distance translocation of metabolites and mineral elements is crucial for plant growth and reproduction. In most cases, source-to-sink translocation of metabolites and minerals requires their passage through the apoplast, irrespective whether they are transported via the xylem or the phloem. This apoplast-mediated pathway is of particular ...
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Stem Cell

Porous Scaffold Seeding and Chondrogenic Differentiation of BMSC-seeded Scaffolds Authors:  Troy D. Bornes, Nadr M. Jomha, Aillette Mulet-Sierra and Adetola B. Adesida, date: 12/20/2015, view: 5034, Q&A: 0
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source for treating articular cartilage defects (Bornes et al., 2014). BMSCs can be seeded within porous biomaterial scaffolds that support three-dimensional cell organization, chondrogenic differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition for the creation ...
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