• Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Cancer Biology

Human Blood Component Vaccinia Virus Neutralization Assay Authors:  Laura Evgin and John Bell, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4904, Q&A: 0
Many therapeutic viruses, such as oncolytic viruses, vaccines, or gene therapy vectors, may be administered by the intravenous route to maximize their delivery to target tissues. Blood components, such as antibody, complement and blood cells (such as neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, B cells or platelets) may result in viral neutralization and ...
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Cell Biology

Single Molecule RNA FISH in the Mammalian Oocyte Author:  Denisa Jansova , date: 12/05/2015, view: 5513, Q&A: 0
RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization is a method to localize and measure gene expression in individual cell or tissue. Using multiple specific fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides greatly increases signal-to-noise ratio and thus enables detection of single RNA molecule. Around forty different DNA oligonucleotides designed to common ...
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Immunology

Excision of Visceral Adipose Tissue from Live Mice (VATectomy) Authors:  Marko Šestan, Felix M. Wensveen and Bojan Polić, date: 12/05/2015, view: 7151, Q&A: 0
The visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to play an important role in various biological functions. It is a storage depot for nutrients and it is an important endocrine organ producing hormones that control systemic metabolism (McGown et al., 2014). Importantly, following diet-induced obesity, VAT accumulates a large number of ...
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Isolation of Lymphocytes from Murine Visceral Adipose Tissue Authors:  Sonja Valentić, Felix M. Wensveen and Bojan Polić, date: 12/05/2015, view: 9380, Q&A: 1
Several studies have shown that the detrimental influence of abdominal obesity on metabolic processes is mediated by the intra-abdominal fat depot. Visceral adipose tissue has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2). Diet-induced obesity in ...
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Microbiology

Establishing a Biofilm Co-culture of Pseudomonas and Aspergillus for Metabolite Extraction Authors:  He Zheng, Nancy P. Keller and Yun Wang, date: 12/05/2015, view: 6714, Q&A: 0
Filamentous fungi and bacteria form mixed-species biofilms in nature and diverse clinical contexts (Frey-Klett et al., 2011; Peleg et al., 2010). The interactions between fungi and bacteria, often mediated by secreted metabolites, have important ramifications for the biology of the interacting partners (Frey-Klett et al. ...
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The Application of Quercetin to Study the Effect of Hsp70 Silencing on Plant Virus Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants Authors:  Matthaios M. Mathioudakis and Ioannis Livieratos, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4908, Q&A: 0
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a mechanically-transmitted pathogen affecting tomato plants worldwide. Like with other plant viruses (Verchot, 2012), the heat shock cognate protein 70 homolog (Hsc70) was identified as an interactor of the PepMV coat protein (CP) (Mathioudakis et al., 2012). Here, we describe a ...
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Plant Science

Measurement of H+ Flux in Rice by Non-invasive Micro-test Technology Authors:  Xi Zhang, Xiu-Yue Zhang and Li-Ping Yin, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4763, Q&A: 0
Rice plants release proton (H+) from root cells into rhizosphere area leading to the acidification of the rhizosphere and increased solubility of ferric iron complexes on the cell membrane, which is important for iron uptakes. Here, we present a detailed protocol to measure H+ flux in root hairs of transgenic rice seedlings ...
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Quantification of the Volume and Surface Area of Symbiosomes and Vacuoles of Infected Cells in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula Authors:  Aleksandr Gavrin and Elena E. Fedorova, date: 12/05/2015, view: 5238, Q&A: 0
Legumes are able to form endosymbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Endosymbiosis takes shape in formation of a symbiotic organ, the root nodule. Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) nodules contain several zones representing subsequent stages of development. The apical part of the nodule consists of the meristem ...
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Chlorophyll Content Assay to Quantify the Level of Necrosis Induced by Different R Gene/Elicitor Combinations after Transient Expression Authors:  C. Jake Harris and David C. Baulcombe, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4861, Q&A: 0
This assay can be used to rapidly and accurately quantify levels of leaf necrosis induced after transient expression of R genes and elicitor combinations (Harris et al., 2013). It is based on the inverse correlation between level of necrosis and chlorophyll content in leaf tissue. It is adapted from the calculations described by (Strain ...
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Terminal Restriction Fragments (TRF) Method to Analyze Telomere Lengths Authors:  Miloslava Fojtová, Petr Fajkus, Pavla Polanská and Jiří Fajkus, date: 12/05/2015, view: 9123, Q&A: 0
Chromosome ends - telomeres - are a focus of intensive research due to their importance for the maintenance of chromosome stability. Their shortening due to incomplete replication functions as a molecular clock counting the number of cell divisions, and ultimately results in cell-cycle arrest and cellular senescence. Determination of telomere ...
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Assay of the Carboxylase Activity of Rubisco from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Authors:  Hemanth P. K. Sudhani, María Jesús García-Murria, Julia Marín-Navarro, Carlos García-Ferris, Lola Peñarrubia and Joaquín Moreno, date: 12/05/2015, view: 5461, Q&A: 0
The performance of the carbon-fixing enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39, Rubisco), controls biomass accumulation in green plants, algae and most autotrophic bacteria. In particular, the carboxylase activity of Rubisco incorporates carbon from CO2 to ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate (RuBP) producing two ...
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Purification of Rubisco from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Authors:  Hemanth P. K. Sudhani, María Jesús García-Murria, Julia Marín-Navarro, Carlos García-Ferris, Lola Peñarrubia and Joaquín Moreno, date: 12/05/2015, view: 6899, Q&A: 0
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for chloroplast studies. Besides other convenient features, the feasibility of chloroplast genome transformation distinguishes this unicellular alga as ideal for the manipulation of chloroplastic gene expression aiming biotechnological goals, such as improved biofuel and biomass production. ...
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Rhizosphere Acidification Assay Authors:  Gaston A. Pizzio, Kamesh Regmi and Roberto Gaxiola, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4702, Q&A: 0
Plant survival depends on the ability of root systems to establish themselves in locations where water and nutrients are available for uptake and translocation (Hawes et al., 2003). Rhizosphere influences crop productivity by mediating efficient nutrient transformation, acquisition, and use (Shen et al., 2013). Rhizosphere ...
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Analysis of Developing Pollen Grains within Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Anthers by Olympus Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy Authors:  Teagen D. Quilichini, A. Lacey Samuels and Carl J. Douglas, date: 12/05/2015, view: 5509, Q&A: 0
The method consists of imaging developing pollen grains as they form within intact, immature Arabidopsis thaliana anthers. Using two-photon excitation in the infrared wavelength range, the intrinsic fluorescence (autofluorescence) of developing pollen grains and surrounding sporophytic tissues of the anther wall, including the tapetum, ...
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Extraction of Intracellular and Cell Wall Proteins from Leaves and Roots of Harsh Hakea Authors:  Michael W. Shane and William C. Plaxton, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4949, Q&A: 0
Plant proteins can be targeted to intracellular (i.e., cytosol, vacuole, organelles etc.) or extracellular (i.e., cell walls, apoplast) compartments. Dual targeting is a key mechanism with important implications for plant metabolism, growth, development and defense etc. Harsh Hakea (Hakea prostrata ...
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