• Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Biochemistry

Preparation of Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles and Enzyme-Entrapped Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles Author:  Yu-Qing Zhang, date: 12/20/2018, view: 2415, Q&A: 0
After silk fiber is degummed in boiling 0.2% Na2CO3 solution, the degummed fibroin fiber could be dissolved in highly concentrated neutral salts such as CaCl2. The partially degraded polypeptides of silk fibroin, commonly called as regenerated liquid silk, could be obtained via water dialysis. The silk fibroin ...
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Cell Biology

Quantitative Analysis of Cargo Density in Single-extracellular Vesicles by Imaging Authors:  Taketoshi Kajimoto and Shun-ichi Nakamura, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1620, Q&A: 0
Function of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes and microvesicles is determined by their wide ranges of cargoes inside them. Even in the pure exosomes or microvesicles the cargo contents are very heterogeneous. To understand this heterogeneous nature of extracellular vesicles, we need information of the vesicles, which will give us some ...
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Microirradiation for Precise, Double-strand Break Induction in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans Authors:  Kailey E. Harrell, Emily Koury and Sarit Smolikove, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1650, Q&A: 0
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are toxic lesions that every cell must accurately repair in order to survive. The repair of DSBs is an integral part of a cell life cycle and can lead to lethality if repaired incorrectly. Laser microirradiation is an established technique which has been used in yeast, mammalian cell culture, and Drosophila ...
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Immunology

Quantitation of Regulatory Activity for the Complement Alternative Pathway Using an Adaptation of the AP50 in vitro Assay Authors:  Sheila Cabezas Falcon, David L Gordon and Jillian M Carr, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1332, Q&A: 2
Complement pathways function to identify and remove pathogens and infected cells. There are three complement pathways: the classical, lectin and alternative pathway (AP). While all pathways are activated following pathogen stimuli, the AP is constitutively active and tightly controlled by activators (e.g., Factor B, Factor D) and negative ...
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Eimeria vermiformis Infection Model of Murine Small Intestine Authors:  Patrícia Figueiredo-Campos, Cristina Ferreira, Birte Blankenhaus and Marc Veldhoen, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1430, Q&A: 0
Eimeria vermiformis is a tissue specific, intracellular protozoan that infects the murine small intestinal epithelia, which has been widely used as a coccidian model to study mucosal immunology. This mouse infection model is valuable to investigate the mechanisms of host protection against primary and secondary infection in the small ...
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Method for Studying the Effect of Gene Silencing on Bacterial Infection-induced ERK1/2 Signaling in Bone-marrow Derived Macrophages Authors:  Gaurav Kumar, Subhash B. Arya and Amit Tuli, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1824, Q&A: 0
Macrophages are highly phagocytic cells that utilize various pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). These PAMPs can be present within the microbe, such as bacterial CpG DNA, and are recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a PRR present on the endosomal membrane of macrophages. PAMPs ...
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Monitoring Natural Killer Cell Function in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells of Ascitic Fluid Authors:  Vikash Kumar and Asok Mukhopadhyay, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1674, Q&A: 0
Natural killer (NK) cells are the major effectors of the innate immune system when activated resulting in modulation of immune response of the host defense through target cell lysis and secretion of cytokines. Precise functions of NK cells are essential for the treatment outcome of different virus infections and malignant diseases. NK cells impart ...
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Microbiology

Production, Titration and Imaging of Zika Virus in Mammalian Cells Authors:  Wesley Freppel, Clément Mazeaud and Laurent Chatel-Chaix, date: 12/20/2018, view: 2347, Q&A: 0
Since the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the US in 2016, this flavivirus has emerged as a major threat for public health. Indeed, it is now clear that ZIKV is vertically transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus and this may lead to severe neurological development defects including (but not restricted to) neonate ...
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Systematic Quantification of GFP-tagged Protein Foci in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Nuclei Authors:  Kim Kiat Lim and Ee Sin Chen, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1541, Q&A: 0
DNA damage repair proteins form foci in response to DNA damaging agents. The efficiency and integrity of the DNA repair pathway of a particular eukaryotic (mutant) strain is usually determined by the number of foci formed compared with their wild-type counterpart. Conventionally, focus number is determined visually, and this low accuracy may ...
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Analysis of DNA Exchange Using Thymidine Analogs (ADExTA) in Trypanosoma cruzi Authors:  Marcelo S. da Silva, Paula A. Marin, Bruno M. Repolês, Maria C. Elias and Carlos R. Machado, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1281, Q&A: 0
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family. Although the trypanosomatids multiply predominantly by clonal generation, the presence of DNA exchange in some of them has been puzzling researchers over the years, mainly because it may represent a novel form that these organisms use to gain variability. ...
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Molecular Biology

Variable Dose Analysis: A Novel High-throughput RNAi Screening Method for Drosophila Cells Authors:  Katarzyna Sierzputowska, Chris R. Baxter and Benjamin E. Housden, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1276, Q&A: 0
Genetic screens are a powerful approach to identify previously uncharacterized genes involved in specific biological processes. Several technologies have been developed for high-throughput screens using reagents such as RNAi or CRISPR, and each approach is associated with specific advantages and disadvantages. Variable Dose Analysis (VDA), is an ...
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Neuroscience

Partial Transection of Adult Rat Optic Nerve as a Model of Secondary Degeneration in the Central Nervous System Authors:  Carole A Bartlett and Melinda Fitzgerald, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1347, Q&A: 0
Injury to the central nervous system is characterized by damage that spreads from the initial point of impact into the surrounding adjacent tissue, in a phenomenon referred to as secondary degeneration. The optic nerve can be used to effectively model injury and secondary degeneration to white matter tracts. Partial transection of the dorsal ...
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Three-chamber Social Approach Task with Optogenetic Stimulation (Mice) Authors:  Celeste Leung, Jun Chul Kim and Zhengping Jia, date: 12/20/2018, view: 1780, Q&A: 0
The formation of social relationships via social interactions and memory are essential for one’s physical and mental health. To date, rodent studies have used the three-chamber social approach test to measure social approach, social novelty, and social memory. In recent years, techniques including optogenetics have been developed to acutely ...
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Plant Science

Visualization and Quantification of Cell-to-cell Movement of Proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana Authors:  Mila C Blekemolen, Mariliis Tark-Dame and Frank L.W Takken, date: 12/20/2018, view: 2057, Q&A: 0
Cell-to-cell movement of proteins through plasmodesmata is a widely-established mechanism for intercellular signaling in plants. Current techniques to study intercellular protein translocation rely on single-cell transformation using particle bombardment or transgenic lines expressing photo-inducible fluorophores. The method presented here allows ...
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