Isabel de Castro Cell Structure Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology , Spain, Spain,
1 protocol

Cristina Risco
  • Cell Structure Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology , Spain, Spain,
Research focus
  • Microbiology
  • 1 Author merit


PhD Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Current position

Research Scientist, Department of Macromolecular Structures, National Center for Biotechnology, CNB-CSIC, Spain

Publications (since 2005)

  1. Sachse, M., Fernández de Castro, I., Fournier, G., Naffakh, N. and Risco, C. (2018). Electron microscopy imaging of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins transport and packaging. Methods Mol. Biol. (Invited book chapter) (accepted)

  2. Knowlton, J. J., Fernandez de Castro, I., Ashbrook, A. W., Gestaut, D. R., Zamora, P. F., Bauer, J. A., Forrest, J. C., Frydman, J., Risco, C. and Dermody, T. S. (2018). The TRiC chaperonin controls reovirus replication through outer-capsid folding. Nat Microbiol 3(4): 481-493.

  3. de Castro Martin, I. F., Fournier, G., Sachse, M., Pizarro-Cerda, J., Risco, C. and Naffakh, N. (2017). Influenza virus genome reaches the plasma membrane via a modified endoplasmic reticulum and Rab11-dependent vesicles. Nat Commun 8(1): 1396.

  4. Fernandez de Castro, I., Fernandez, J. J., Barajas, D., Nagy, P. D. and Risco, C. (2017). Three-dimensional imaging of the intracellular assembly of a functional viral RNA replicase complex. J Cell Sci 130(1): 260-268.

  5. Lopez-Montero, N., Ramos-Marques, E., Risco, C. and Garcia-Del Portillo, F. (2016). Intracellular Salmonella induces aggrephagy of host endomembranes in persistent infections. Autophagy 12(10): 1886-1901.

  6. Fernandez de Castro, I., Tenorio, R. and Risco, C. (2016). Virus assembly factories in a lipid world. Curr Opin Virol 18: 20-26.

  7. Kovalev, N., de Castro Martin, I. F., Pogany, J., Barajas, D., Pathak, K., Risco, C. and Nagy, P. D. (2016). Role of Viral RNA and Co-opted Cellular ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III Factors in Formation of Tombusvirus Spherules Harboring the Tombusvirus Replicase. J Virol 90(7): 3611-3626.

  8. Nawaz-ul-Rehman, M. S., Prasanth, K. R., Xu, K., Sasvari, Z., Kovalev, N., de Castro Martin, I. F., Barajas, D., Risco, C. and Nagy, P. D. (2016). Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly. PLoS Pathog 12(2): e1005440.

  9. de Castro, I. F. and Risco, C. (2014). Imaging RNA virus replication assemblies: bunyaviruses and reoviruses. Future Virology 9(12): 1089–1104 (invited review).

  10. Fernandez de Castro, I., Sanz-Sanchez, L. and Risco, C. (2014). Metallothioneins for correlative light and electron microscopy. Methods Cell Biol 124: 55-70 (invited book chapter).

  11. Risco, C., de Castro, I. F., Sanz-Sanchez, L., Narayan, K., Grandinetti, G. and Subramaniam, S. (2014). Three-Dimensional Imaging of Viral Infections. Annu Rev Virol 1(1): 453-473 (invited review). Promotional video

  12. Barajas, D., Xu, K., de Castro Martin, I. F., Sasvari, Z., Brandizzi, F., Risco, C. and Nagy, P. D. (2014). Co-opted oxysterol-binding ORP and VAP proteins channel sterols to RNA virus replication sites via membrane contact sites. PLoS Pathog 10(10): e1004388.

  13. Barajas, D., Martin, I. F., Pogany, J., Risco, C. and Nagy, P. D. (2014). Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase. PLoS Pathog 10(4): e1004087.

  14. Fernandez de Castro, I., Zamora, P. F., Ooms, L., Fernandez, J. J., Lai, C. M., Mainou, B. A., Dermody, T. S. and Risco, C. (2014). Reovirus forms neo-organelles for progeny particle assembly within reorganized cell membranes. MBio 5(1).

  15. Li, B., Wang, Q., Pan, X., Fernandez de Castro, I., Sun, Y., Guo, Y., Tao, X., Risco, C., Sui, S. F. and Lou, Z. (2013). Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(22): 9048-9053.

  16. Sanz-Sanchez, L. and Risco, C. (2013). Multilamellar structures and filament bundles are found on the cell surface during bunyavirus egress. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65526.

  17. Risco, C. and Fernandez de Castro, I. (2013). Virus morphogenesis in the cell: methods and observations. Subcell Biochem 68: 417-440 (invited chapter).

  18. de Castro, I. F., Volonte, L. and Risco, C. (2013). Virus factories: biogenesis and structural design. Cell Microbiol 15(1): 24-34 (invited review).

  19. Risco, C., Sanmartin-Conesa, E., Tzeng, W. P., Frey, T. K., Seybold, V. and de Groot, R. J. (2012). Specific, sensitive, high-resolution detection of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells using metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy. Structure 20(5): 759-766.

  20. Lopez-Montero, N. and Risco, C. (2011). Self-protection and survival of arbovirus-infected mosquito cells. Cell Microbiol 13(2): 300-315.

  21. Fontana, J., Lopez-Iglesias, C., Tzeng, W. P., Frey, T. K., Fernandez, J. J. and Risco, C. (2010). Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories. Virology 405(2): 579-591.

  22. Diestra, E., Cayrol, B., Arluison, V. and Risco, C. (2009). Cellular electron microscopy imaging reveals the localization of the Hfq protein close to the bacterial membrane. PLoS One 4(12): e8301.

  23. Chichon, F. J., Rodriguez, M. J., Risco, C., Fraile-Ramos, A., Fernandez, J. J., Esteban, M. and Carrascosa, J. L. (2009). Membrane remodelling during vaccinia virus morphogenesis. Biol Cell 101(7): 401-414.

  24. Diestra, E., Fontana, J., Guichard, P., Marco, S. and Risco, C. (2009). Visualization of proteins in intact cells with a clonable tag for electron microscopy. J Struct Biol 165(3): 157-168.

  25. Fontana, J., Lopez-Montero, N., Elliott, R. M., Fernandez, J. J. and Risco, C. (2008). The unique architecture of Bunyamwera virus factories around the Golgi complex. Cell Microbiol 10(10): 2012-2028.

  26. Fontana, J., López-Montero, N. and Risco, C. (2007). Structural analysis of viral factories: from conventional microscopy to electron tomography. Acta Microscopica 16(1-2): 42-51 (Educational Article).

  27. Fraile-Ramos, A., Pelchen-Matthews, A., Risco, C., Rejas, M. T., Emery, V. C., Hassan-Walker, A. F., Esteban, M. and Marsh, M. (2007). The ESCRT machinery is not required for human cytomegalovirus envelopment. Cell Microbiol 9(12): 2955-2967.

  28. Fontana, J., Tzeng, W. P., Calderita, G., Fraile-Ramos, A., Frey, T. K. and Risco, C. (2007). Novel replication complex architecture in rubella replicon-transfected cells. Cell Microbiol 9(4): 875-890.

  29. Cabezas, P. and Risco, C. (2006). Studying cellular architecture in three dimensions with improved resolution: Ta replicas revisited. Cell Biol Int 30(9): 747-754.

  30. Schamel, W. W., Arechaga, I., Risueno, R. M., van Santen, H. M., Cabezas, P., Risco, C., Valpuesta, J. M. and Alarcon, B. (2005). Coexistence of multivalent and monovalent TCRs explains high sensitivity and wide range of response. J Exp Med 202(4): 493-503.

  31. Novoa, R. R., Calderita, G., Cabezas, P., Elliott, R. M. and Risco, C. (2005). Key Golgi factors for structural and functional maturation of bunyamwera virus. J Virol 79(17): 10852-10863. (Journal cover)

  32. Cyrklaff, M., Risco, C., Fernandez, J. J., Jimenez, M. V., Esteban, M., Baumeister, W. and Carrascosa, J. L. (2005). Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(8): 2772-2777.

  33. Novoa, R. R., Calderita, G., Arranz, R., Fontana, J., Granzow, H. and Risco, C. (2005). Virus factories: associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis. Biol Cell 97(2): 147-172. (review)

1 Protocol published
Metal-tagging Transmission Electron Microscopy for Localisation of Tombusvirus Replication Compartments in Yeast
Authors:  Isabel Fernández de Castro and Cristina Risco, date: 04/20/2018, view: 4098, Q&A: 0
Positive-stranded (+) RNA viruses are intracellular pathogens in humans, animals and plants. To build viral replicase complexes (VRCs) viruses manipulate lipid flows and reorganize subcellular membranes. Redesigned membranes concentrate viral and ...
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