Jeffrey Milush University of California
1 protocol

Vanessa A. York
  • Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
  • 1 Author merit


B.S. in Biological Sciences with an Emphasis in Molecular and Cellular Biology, UC Davis, 2005

Current position

Staff Research Associate III-Supervisor, Division of Experimental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, USA

Publications (since 2008)

  1. Raposo, R. A., Gupta, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Dimon, M., Debbaneh, M., Jiang, W., York, V. A., Leadabrand, K. S., Brown, G., Malakouti, M., Arron, S., Kuebler, P. J., Wu, J. J., Pillai, S. K., Nixon, D. F. and Liao, W. (2015). Antiviral gene expression in psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. (Epub ahead of print)
  2. Gurfein, B. T., Davidenko, O., Premenko-Lanier, M., Milush, J. M., Acree, M., Dallman, M. F., Touma, C., Palme, R., York, V. A., Fromentin, G., Darcel, N., Nixon, D. F. and Hecht, F. M. (2014). Environmental enrichment alters splenic immune cell composition and enhances secondary influenza vaccine responses in mice. Mol Med 20: 179-190.
  3. Milush, J. M., Lopez-Verges, S., York, V. A., Deeks, S. G., Martin, J. N., Hecht, F. M., Lanier, L. L. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). CD56negCD16(+) NK cells are activated mature NK cells with impaired effector function during HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology 10: 158.
  4. de Mulder, M., York, V. A., Wiznia, A. A., Michaud, H. A., Nixon, D. F., Holguin, A. and Rosenberg, M. G. (2014). HIV-1 drug resistance prevalence, drug susceptibility and variant characterization in the Jacobi Medical Center paediatric cohort, Bronx, NY, USA. HIV Med 15(3): 135-143.
  5. Champiat, S., Garrison, K. E., Raposo, R. A., Burwitz, B. J., Reed, J., Tandon, R., York, V. A., Newman, L. P., Nimityongskul, F. A., Wilson, N. A., Almeida, R. R., Martin, J. N., Deeks, S. G., Rosenberg, M. G., Wiznia, A. A., Spotts, G. E., Pilcher, C. D., Hecht, F. M., Ostrowski, M. A., Sacha, J. B. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). T cells target APOBEC3 proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaques. J Virol 87(11): 6073-6080.
  6. Batista, M. D., Tincati, C., Milush, J. M., Ho, E. L., Ndhlovu, L. C., York, V. A., Kallas, E. G., Kalil, J., Keating, S. M., Norris, P. J., Chang, D., Unemori, P., Leslie, K. S., Maurer, T., Liao, W. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One 8(2): e52144.
  7. Batista, M. D., Ho, E. L., Kuebler, P. J., Milush, J. M., Lanier, L. L., Kallas, E. G., York, V. A., Chang, D., Liao, W., Unemori, P., Leslie, K. S., Maurer, T. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). Skewed distribution of natural killer cells in psoriasis skin lesions. Exp Dermatol 22(1): 64-66.
  8. de Vos, G., Milush, J. M., Aaron, J., Pichardo, Y., York, V. A., Nazari, R., Rosenstreich, D., Nixon, D. F. and Wiznia, A. (2012). Peripheral CD8+ T-cell levels are decreased in atopic wheezing children aged less than 4 years. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 22(6): 442-444.
  9. Tandon, R., Giret, M. T., Sengupta, D., York, V. A., Wiznia, A. A., Rosenberg, M. G., Kallas, E. G., Ndhlovu, L. C. and Nixon, D. F. (2012). Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected children. PLoS One 7(9): e45733.
  10. Tandon, R., SenGupta, D., Ndhlovu, L. C., Vieira, R. G., Jones, R. B., York, V. A., Vieira, V. A., Sharp, E. R., Wiznia, A. A., Ostrowski, M. A., Rosenberg, M. G. and Nixon, D. F. (2011). Identification of human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol 85(21): 11526-11531.
  11. Lopez-Verges, S., Milush, J. M., Schwartz, B. S., Pando, M. J., Jarjoura, J., York, V. A., Houchins, J. P., Miller, S., Kang, S. M., Norris, P. J., Nixon, D. F. and Lanier, L. L. (2011). Expansion of a unique CD57(+)NKG2Chi natural killer cell subset during acute human cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(36): 14725-14732.
  12. Ndhlovu, L. C., Leal, F. E., Hasenkrug, A. M., Jha, A. R., Carvalho, K. I., Eccles-James, I. G., Bruno, F. R., Vieira, R. G., York, V. A., Chew, G. M., Jones, R. B., Tanaka, Y., Neto, W. K., Sanabani, S. S., Ostrowski, M. A., Segurado, A. C., Nixon, D. F. and Kallas, E. G. (2011). HTLV-1 tax specific CD8+ T cells express low levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 infection: implications for progression to neurological complications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(4): e1030.
  13. SenGupta, D., Tandon, R., Vieira, R. G., Ndhlovu, L. C., Lown-Hecht, R., Ormsby, C. E., Loh, L., Jones, R. B., Garrison, K. E., Martin, J. N., York, V. A., Spotts, G., Reyes-Teran, G., Ostrowski, M. A., Hecht, F. M., Deeks, S. G. and Nixon, D. F. (2011). Strong human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses are associated with control of HIV-1 in chronic infection. J Virol 85(14): 6977-6985.
  14. Lopez-Verges, S., Milush, J. M., Pandey, S., York, V. A., Arakawa-Hoyt, J., Pircher, H., Norris, P. J., Nixon, D. F. and Lanier, L. L. (2010). CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset. Blood 116(19): 3865-3874.
  15. Milush, J. M., Long, B. R., Snyder-Cappione, J. E., Cappione, A. J., 3rd, York, V. A., Ndhlovu, L. C., Lanier, L. L., Michaelsson, J. and Nixon, D. F. (2009). Functionally distinct subsets of human NK cells and monocyte/DC-like cells identified by coexpression of CD56, CD7, and CD4. Blood 114(23): 4823-4831.
  16. Jha, A. R., Pillai, S. K., York, V. A., Sharp, E. R., Storm, E. C., Wachter, D. J., Martin, J. N., Deeks, S. G., Rosenberg, M. G., Nixon, D. F. and Garrison, K. E. (2009). Cross-sectional dating of novel haplotypes of HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115 indicate these proviruses originated in Africa before Homo sapiens. Mol Biol Evol 26(11): 2617-2626.
  17. Garrison, K. E., Champiat, S., York, V. A., Agrawal, A. T., Kallas, E. G., Martin, J. N., Hecht, F. M., Deeks, S. G. and Nixon, D. F. (2009). Transcriptional errors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 generate targets for T-cell responses. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16(9): 1369-1371.
  18. Willberg, C. B., McConnell, J. J., Eriksson, E. M., Bragg, L. A., York, V. A., Liegler, T. J., Hecht, F. M., Grant, R. M. and Nixon, D. F. (2008). Immunity to HIV-1 is influenced by continued natural exposure to exogenous virus. PLoS Pathog 4(10): e1000185.
1 Protocol published
Ex vivo Human Natural Killer (NK) Cell Stimulation and Intracellular IFNγ and CD107a Cytokine Staining
Authors:  Vanessa A. York and Jeffrey M. Milush, date: 06/20/2015, view: 7413, Q&A: 1
Natural killer (NK) cells comprise 5–20% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. In addition to their fundamental roles in the defense against viral infections and tumor surveillance, NK cells help shape adaptive immune responses ...