Douglas Kwon Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, USA
1 protocol

Cynthia L. Monaco
  • Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
Research focus
  • Microbiology
  • 1 Author merit


Ph.D of Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA, 2009

Current position

Instructor in Medicine (PDA), Division of Hospital Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, USA


  1. Monaco, C. L., Gootenberg, D. B., Zhao, G., Handley, S. A., Ghebremichael, M. S., Lim, E. S., Lankowski, A., Baldridge, M. T., Wilen, C. B., Flagg, M., Norman, J. M., Keller, B. C., Luevano, J. M., Wang, D., Boum, Y., Martin, J. N., Hunt, P. W., Bangsberg, D. R., Siedner, M. J., Kwon, D. S. and Virgin, H. W. (2016). Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Cell Host Microbe 19(3): 311-322.
  2. Handley, S. A., Desai, C., Zhao, G., Droit, L., Monaco, C. L., Schroeder, A. C., Nkolola, J. P., Norman, M. E., Miller, A. D., Wang, D., Barouch, D. H. and Virgin, H. W. (2016). SIV Infection-Mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Are Associated with Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination. Cell Host Microbe 19(3): 323-335.
  3. Wilen, C. B., Monaco, C. L., Hoppe-Bauer, J., Jackups, R., Jr., Bucelli, R. C. and Burnham, C. A. (2015). Criteria for reducing unnecessary testing for herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples from adults. J Clin Microbiol 53(3): 887-895.
  4. Norman, J. M., Handley, S. A., Baldridge, M. T., Droit, L., Liu, C. Y., Keller, B. C., Kambal, A., Monaco, C. L., Zhao, G., Fleshner, P., Stappenbeck, T. S., McGovern, D. P., Keshavarzian, A., Mutlu, E. A., Sauk, J., Gevers, D., Xavier, R. J., Wang, D., Parkes, M. and Virgin, H. W. (2015). Disease-specific alterations in the enteric virome in inflammatory bowel disease. Cell 160(3): 447-460.
  5. Johnson, C. and Santos, C. (2013). Infection in Non-HIV Immunocompromised Hosts. In: Kirmani, N., Woeltje, K. F., Babcock, H. M., De Fer, T. M. and Henderson, K. E. (Eds). The Washington Manual Infectious Diseases Subspecialty Consult. 2nd edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 311-349.
  6. Keller, B. C., Johnson, C. L., Erickson, A. K. and Gale, M., Jr. (2007). Innate immune evasion by hepatitis C virus and West Nile virus. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18(5-6): 535-544.
  7. Johnson, C. L., Owen, D. M. and Gale, M., Jr. (2007). Functional and therapeutic analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3.4A protease control of antiviral immune defense. J Biol Chem 282(14): 10792-10803.
  8. Saito, T., Hirai, R., Loo, Y. M., Owen, D., Johnson, C. L., Sinha, S. C., Akira, S., Fujita, T. and Gale, M., Jr. (2007). Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(2): 582-587.
  9. Johnson, C. L. and Gale, M., Jr. (2006). CARD games between virus and host get a new player. Trends Immunol 27(1): 1-4.
  10. Chien, Y., Kim, S., Bumeister, R., Loo, Y. M., Kwon, S. W., Johnson, C. L., Balakireva, M. G., Romeo, Y., Kopelovich, L., Gale, M., Jr., Yeaman, C., Camonis, J. H., Zhao, Y. and White, M. A. (2006). RalB GTPase-mediated activation of the IkappaB family kinase TBK1 couples innate immune signaling to tumor cell survival. Cell 127(1): 157-170.
  11. Loo, Y. M., Owen, D. M., Li, K., Erickson, A. K., Johnson, C. L., Fish, P. M., Carney, D. S., Wang, T., Ishida, H., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Saito, T., Lee, W. M., Hagedorn, C. H., Lau, D. T., Weinman, S. A., Lemon, S. M. and Gale, M., Jr. (2006). Viral and therapeutic control of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1 during hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(15): 6001-6006.
  12. Foy, E., Li, K., Sumpter, R., Jr., Loo, Y. M., Johnson, C. L., Wang, C., Fish, P. M., Yoneyama, M., Fujita, T., Lemon, S. M. and Gale, M., Jr. (2005). Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(8): 2986-2991.
  13. Brzostowski, J. A., Johnson, C. and Kimmel, A. R. (2002). Galpha-mediated inhibition of developmental signal response. Curr Biol 12(14): 1199-1208.
  14. Henderson, C. W., Johnson, C. L., Lodhi, S. A. and Bilimoria, S. L. (2001). Replication of Chilo iridescent virus in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and development of an infectivity assay. Arch Virol 146(4): 767-775.
1 Protocol published
Next-generation Sequencing of the DNA Virome from Fecal Samples
Authors:  Cynthia L. Monaco and Douglas S. Kwon, date: 03/05/2017, view: 7858, Q&A: 0
Herein we describe a detailed protocol for DNA virome analysis of low input human stool samples (Monaco et al., 2016). This protocol is divided into four main steps: 1) stool samples are pulverized to evenly distribute microbial matter; 2) ...
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