Flávio Loures University of Massachusetts Medical School
1 protocol

Stuart M. Levitz
  • Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA
Research focus
  • Microbiology
  • 1 Author merit


M.D., New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA, 1979
Ph.D. in infectious diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, 1986

Current position

Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School

Publications (since 2010)

  1. Wiesner, D. L., Specht, C. A., Lee, C. K., Smith, K. D., Mukaremera, L., Lee, S. T., Lee, C. G., Elias, J. A., Nielsen, J. N., Boulware, D. R., Bohjanen, P. R., Jenkins, M. K., Levitz, S. M. and Nielsen, K. (2015). Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection. PLoS Pathog 11(3): e1004701.
  2. Panackal, A. A., Wuest, S. C., Lin, Y. C., Wu, T., Zhang, N., Kosa, P., Komori, M., Blake, A., Browne, S. K., Rosen, L. B., Hagen, F., Meis, J., Levitz, S. M., Quezado, M., Hammoud, D., Bennett, J. E., Bielekova, B. and Williamson, P. R. (2015). Paradoxical immune responses in Non-HIV cryptococcal meningitis. PLoS Pathog 11(5): e1004884.
  3. Loures, F. V., Rohm, M., Lee, C. K., Santos, E., Wang, J. P., Specht, C. A., Calich, V. L., Urban, C. F. and Levitz, S. M. (2015). Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps. PLoS Pathog 11(2): e1004643.
  4. Bueter, C. L., Lee, C. K., Wang, J. P., Ostroff, G. R., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2014). Spectrum and mechanisms of inflammasome activation by chitosan. J Immunol 192(12): 5943-5951.
  5. De Jesus, M., Ostroff, G. R., Levitz, S. M., Bartling, T. R. and Mantis, N. J. (2014). A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer's patches involved in sampling beta-glucan microparticles. PLoS One 9(3): e91002.
  6. Tsyrkunou, A. V., Ellison, R. T., 3rd, Akalin, A., Wiederhold, N., Sutton, D. A., Lindner, J., Fan, H., Levitz, S. M. and Zivna, I. (2014). Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing. Med Mycol Case Rep 6: 14-17.
  7. Quintin, J. and Levitz, S. M. (2013). NKp30 enables NK cells to act naturally with fungi. Cell Host Microbe 14(4): 369-371.
  8. Cariello, P. F., Wickes, B. L., Sutton, D. A., Castlebury, L. A., Levitz, S. M., Finberg, R. W., Thompson, E. H. and Daly, J. S. (2013). Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol 51(2): 692-695.
  9. Huang, H., Ostroff, G. R., Lee, C. K., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2013). Characterization and optimization of the glucan particle-based vaccine platform. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20(10): 1585-1591.
  10. Chang, C. C., Lim, A., Omarjee, S., Levitz, S. M., Gosnell, B. I., Spelman, T., Elliott, J. H., Carr, W. H., Moosa, M. Y., Ndung'u, T., Lewin, S. R. and French, M. A. (2013). Cryptococcosis-IRIS is associated with lower cryptococcus-specific IFN-gamma responses before antiretroviral therapy but not higher T-cell responses during therapy. J Infect Dis 208(6): 898-906.
  11. Jarvis, J. N., Casazza, J. P., Stone, H. H., Meintjes, G., Lawn, S. D., Levitz, S. M., Harrison, T. S. and Koup, R. A. (2013). The phenotype of the Cryptococcus-specific CD4+ memory T-cell response is associated with disease severity and outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis 207(12): 1817-1828.
  12. Quintin, J. and Levitz, S. M. (2013). NKp30 enables NK cells to act naturally with fungi. Cell Host Microbe 14(4): 369-371.
  13. Levitz, S. M. (2012). Compounding drugs contaminated with fungi: a recipe for disaster. Emerg Microbes Infect 1(11): e41.
  14. Brown, G. D., Denning, D. W. and Levitz, S. M. (2012). Tackling human fungal infections. Science 336(6082): 647.
  15. Hurtgen, B. J., Hung, C. Y., Ostroff, G. R., Levitz, S. M. and Cole, G. T. (2012). Construction and evaluation of a novel recombinant T cell epitope-based vaccine against Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 80(11): 3960-3974.
  16. Huang, H., Ostroff, G. R., Lee, C. K., Agarwal, S., Ram, S., Rice, P. A., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2012). Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate beta-glucans. J Immunol 189(1): 312-317.
  17. Mansour, M. K., Vyas, J. M. and Levitz, S. M. (2011). Dynamic virulence: real-time assessment of intracellular pathogenesis links Cryptococcus neoformans phenotype with clinical outcome. MBio 2(5).
  18. Kwon-Chung, K. J., Perfect, J. R. and Levitz, S. M. (2012). A chronological history of the International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC), an invaluable forum for growth of the cryptococcal research field and clinical practice. Mycopathologia 173(5-6): 287-293.
  19. Cohen, N. R., Tatituri, R. V., Rivera, A., Watts, G. F., Kim, E. Y., Chiba, A., Fuchs, B. B., Mylonakis, E., Besra, G. S., Levitz, S. M., Brigl, M. and Brenner, M. B. (2011). Innate recognition of cell wall beta-glucans drives invariant natural killer T cell responses against fungi. Cell Host Microbe 10(5): 437-450.
  20. Wang, J. P., Lee, C. K., Akalin, A., Finberg, R. W. and Levitz, S. M. (2011). Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS One 6(10): e26232.
  21. Bueter, C. L., Lee, C. K., Rathinam, V. A., Healy, G. J., Taron, C. H., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2011). Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis. J Biol Chem 286(41): 35447-35455.
  22. Agarwal, S., Specht, C. A., Haibin, H., Ostroff, G. R., Ram, S., Rice, P. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2011). Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. MBio 2(5).
  23. Ramirez-Ortiz Z. G., Lee, C. K., Wang, J. P., Boon, L., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2011). Interactions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with Aspergillus fumigatus. Cell Host & Microbe 9:415-24.
  24. Jesus, M. D., Nicola, A. M., Chow, S. K., Lee, I. R., Nong, S., Specht, C. A., Levitz, S. M. and Casadevall, A. (2010). Glucuronoxylomannan, galactoxylomannan, and mannoprotein occupy spatially separate and discrete regions in the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Virulence 1(6): 500-508. 
  25. Huang, H., Ostroff, G. R., Lee, C. K., Specht, C. A. and Levitz, S. M. (2010). Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles. MBio 1(3).

1 Protocol published
Authors:  Flávio V. Loures and Stuart M. Levitz, date: 08/05/2015, view: 8335, Q&A: 0
XTT assay is a colorimetric method that uses the tetrazolium dye, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) to quantify cell-mediated damage to fungi. Actively respiring fungal cells convert the water-soluble XTT ...
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