Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Unbiased Screening of Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in Tumor Extracts Using a Mouse Phospho-RTK Array Kit
    Authors:  Julian Naipauer, Lucas E. Cavallin and Enrique A. Mesri, date: 04/20/2019, view: 376, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) is a virus that causes KS, an angiogenic AIDS-associated spindle-cell neoplasm, by activating host oncogenic signaling cascades through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Many host signaling cascades co-opted by KSHV including PI3K/AKT/mTORC, NFkB and Notch are critical for cell-specific mechanisms of ...
    Monitoring Natural Killer Cell Function in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells of Ascitic Fluid
    Authors:  Vikash Kumar and Asok Mukhopadhyay, date: 12/20/2018, view: 964, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Natural killer (NK) cells are the major effectors of the innate immune system when activated resulting in modulation of immune response of the host defense through target cell lysis and secretion of cytokines. Precise functions of NK cells are essential for the treatment outcome of different virus infections and malignant diseases. NK cells impart ...
    Cluster Analysis of Endogenous HER2 and HER3 Receptors in SKBR3 Cells
    [Abstract] The Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of four, single pass, transmembrane receptor homologs (HER1-4) that act to regulate many critical processes in normal and tumor cells. HER2 is overexpressed in many tumors, and the deregulated proliferation of cancerous cells is driven by cooperation with ...
    3D Culture Protocol for Testing Gene Knockdown Efficiency and Cell Line Derivation
    Authors:  Jan Strnadel, Sang Myung Woo, Sunkyu Choi, Huawei Wang, Marian Grendar and Ken Fujimura, date: 06/05/2018, view: 3165, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Traditional 2D cell cultures with cells grown as monolayers on solid surface still represent the standard method in cancer research for drug testing. Cells grown in 2D cultures, however, lack relevant cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions and ignore the true three-dimensional anatomy of solid tumors. Cells cultured in 2D can also undergo ...
    FACS-based Glucose Uptake Assay of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells Using 2-NBDG Probe
    Authors:  Shengli Dong and Suresh K Alahari, date: 04/20/2018, view: 2986, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This is a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure glucose uptake of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and breast cancer cells in vitro. The method is a slightly modified and updated version as previously described (Dong et al., 2017). Briefly, the target cells are incubated with the fluorescently tagged ...
    Primary Cultures from Human GH-secreting or Clinically Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas
    Authors:  Roberto Würth, Alessandra Pattarozzi, Federica Barbieri and Tullio Florio, date: 04/05/2018, view: 1912, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Pituitary adenomas are among the more frequent intracranial tumors usually treated with both surgical and pharmacological–based on somatostatin and dopamine agonists–approaches. Although mostly benign tumors, the occurrence of invasive behaviors is often detected resulting in poorer prognosis. The use of primary cultures from human pituitary ...
    Xenograft Mouse Model of Human Uveal Melanoma
    Authors:  Yao Chen, Xiao Liu, Ling Gao and Yongqing Liu, date: 11/05/2017, view: 3015, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Uveal melanoma (UM) is a malignant intraocular tumor in adults. Metastasis develops in almost half of the patients and over 90% of the metastases are in the liver. With the advances in molecular targeting therapy for melanoma, a proper metastasis animal model is of increasing importance for testing the accuracy and effectiveness of systemic ...
    Melanoma Stem Cell Sphere Formation Assay
    Authors:  Alessandra Tuccitto, Valeria Beretta, Francesca Rini, Chiara Castelli and Michela Perego, date: 04/20/2017, view: 5735, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Self-renewal is the ability of cells to replicate themselves at every cell cycle. Throughout self-renewal in normal tissue homeostasis, stem cell number is maintained constant throughout life. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) share this ability with normal tissue stem cells and the sphere formation assay (SFA) is the gold standard assay to assess stem ...
    Preparation of Primary Astrocyte Culture Derived from Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Specimen
    Authors:  Mansoureh Hashemi and Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, date: 04/20/2017, view: 5093, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade 4 astrocytoma tumor in central nervous system. Astrocytes can be isolated from human GBM. Study of astrocytes can provide insights about the formation, progression and recurrence of glioblastoma. For using isolated astrocytes, new studies can be designed in the fields of pharmacology, neuroscience and ...
    In situ Hybridization (ISH) and Quantum Dots (QD) of miRNAs
    Authors:  Sajni Josson, Murali Gururajan and Leland W.K. Chung, date: 02/20/2017, view: 5312, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] miRNA are short non-coding RNA which inhibit translation of mRNA. miRNA regulate several cellular processes. Certain miRNA are known to induce oncogenesis. miRNA can be measured by real-time PCR and be imaged using a combination of in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantum dots (QD). The advantage of using quantum dots is that several miRNA ...



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