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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantification of HIV-2 DNA in Whole Blood
    Authors:  Zsófia Szojka, Sara Karlson, Marianne Jansson and Patrik Medstrand, date: 10/20/2019, view: 22, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Time to AIDS infection is longer with HIV-2, compared to HIV-1, but without antiretroviral therapy both infections will cause AIDS-related mortality. In HIV-2 infection, monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) efficacy is challenging since a large proportion of HIV-2-infected individuals displays low or undetectable plasma RNA levels. Hence, ...
    Fluorescence Microscopy Assay to Measure HIV-1 Capsid Uncoating Kinetics in vitro
    [Abstract] The stability of the HIV-1 capsid and the spatiotemporal control of its disassembly, a process called uncoating, need to be finely tuned for infection to proceed. Biochemical methods for measuring capsid lattice disassembly in bulk are unable to resolve intermediates in the uncoating reaction. We have developed a single-particle fluorescence ...
    In vitro Infection of Primary Human Monocytes with HIV-1
    Authors:  Patrick O’Connell, Yong-Hui Zheng, Andrea Amalfitano and Yasser A. Aldhamen, date: 07/05/2019, view: 684, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Monocyte infection by HIV-1 is an important component of chronic HIV pathogenesis. Following infection by HIV-1, monocytes are able to cross the blood brain barrier and set up a viral reservoir in the central nervous system. Additionally, in the setting of chronic HIV-1 infection, monocytes can become activated either directly through HIV-1 ...
    TZA, a Sensitive Reporter Cell-based Assay to Accurately and Rapidly Quantify Inducible, Replication-competent Latent HIV-1 from Resting CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Anwesha Sanyal, Vatsala S. Rangachar and Phalguni Gupta, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1359, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The latent HIV-1 viral reservoir in resting CD4+ (rCD4+) T cells represents a major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. There is an ongoing effort to identify therapeutic approaches that will eliminate or reduce the size of this reservoir. However, clinical investigators lack an assay to determine whether or not a decrease in the ...
    Analysis of Early Phase HIV-1 Replication and Integration Events by Using Real-time PCR
    Authors:  Graf Laura, Steven P. Moran, Sally Ro, Carlos M.C. de Noronha and Binshan Shi, date: 02/20/2019, view: 1124, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Upon entry into a host cell, the HIV-1 virus undergoes a series of critical early replication events including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration of its cDNA into the host genome. Molecular assays used to detect and analyze changes in HIV-1 early phase replication events are valuable tools in developing potential antiretroviral ...
    HIVGKO: A Tool to Assess HIV-1 Latency Reversal Agents in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Emilie Battivelli and Eric Verdin, date: 10/20/2018, view: 2030, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] While able to suppress HIV replication in HIV infected individuals, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to eliminate viral latent reservoir, which consists in integrated transcriptional silenced HIV provirus. So far, identification of latently-infected cells has relied on activating cells to induce expression of HIV proteins which can ...
    Single Genome Sequencing of Expressed and Proviral HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein 120 (gp120) and nef Genes
    [Abstract] The current study provides detailed protocols utilized to amplify the complete HIV-1 gp120 and nef genes from single copies of expressed or integrated HIV present in fresh-frozen autopsy tissues of patients who died while on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with no detectable plasma viral load (pVL) at death (Lamers et al ...
    Flow Cytometric Analysis of HIV-1 Transcriptional Activity in Response to shRNA Knockdown in A2 and A72 J-Lat Cell Lines
    Authors:  Daniela Boehm and Melanie Ott, date: 06/05/2017, view: 4842, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). To eliminate viral reservoirs, one strategy focuses ...
    Flow Cytometric Analysis of Drug-induced HIV-1 Transcriptional Activity in A2 and A72 J-Lat Cell Lines
    Authors:  Daniela Boehm and Melanie Ott, date: 05/20/2017, view: 6278, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). A combination of antiretroviral treatments with ...
    Isolation of Exosomes from Semen for in vitro Uptake and HIV-1 Infection Assays
    Authors:  Marisa N. Madison, Jennifer L. Welch and Chioma M. Okeoma, date: 04/05/2017, view: 5954, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles of endocytic origin. Exosomes are known to carry host and pathogen-derived genomic, proteomic, lipidomic cargos and other extraneous molecules. Exosomes are secreted by diverse cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient neighboring or distal cells. Upon ...



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