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    Direct Reprogramming of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts to Conventional Type 1 Dendritic Cells by Enforced Expression of Transcription Factors
    Authors:  Fábio F. Rosa, Cristiana F. Pires, Olga Zimmermannova and Carlos-Filipe Pereira, date: 05/20/2020, view: 1280, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ectopic expression of transcription factor combinations has been recently demonstrated to reprogram differentiated somatic cells towards the dendritic cell (DC) lineage without reversion to a multipotent state. DCs have the ability to induce potent and long-lasting adaptive immune responses. In particular, conventional type 1 DCs (cDC1s) excel on ...
    Quantifying HIV-1-Mediated Gut CD4+ T Cell Death in the Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) Model
    Authors:  Stephanie M. Dillon, Kejun Guo, Moriah J. Castleman, Mario L. Santiago and Cara C. Wilson, date: 01/20/2020, view: 1188, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gut CD4 T cells are major targets of HIV-1 and are massively depleted early during infection. To better understand the mechanisms governing HIV-1-mediated CD4 T cell death, we developed the physiologically-relevant Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) model. The LPAC model is ideal for studying CD4 T cell death induced by clinically-relevant ...
    Quantification of HIV-2 DNA in Whole Blood
    Authors:  Zsófia Szojka, Sara Karlson, Marianne Jansson and Patrik Medstrand, date: 10/20/2019, view: 1542, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Time to AIDS infection is longer with HIV-2, compared to HIV-1, but without antiretroviral therapy both infections will cause AIDS-related mortality. In HIV-2 infection, monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) efficacy is challenging since a large proportion of HIV-2-infected individuals displays low or undetectable plasma RNA levels. Hence, ...
    Fluorescence Microscopy Assay to Measure HIV-1 Capsid Uncoating Kinetics in vitro
    [Abstract] The stability of the HIV-1 capsid and the spatiotemporal control of its disassembly, a process called uncoating, need to be finely tuned for infection to proceed. Biochemical methods for measuring capsid lattice disassembly in bulk are unable to resolve intermediates in the uncoating reaction. We have developed a single-particle fluorescence ...
    In vitro Infection of Primary Human Monocytes with HIV-1
    Authors:  Patrick O’Connell, Yong-Hui Zheng, Andrea Amalfitano and Yasser A. Aldhamen, date: 07/05/2019, view: 2164, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Monocyte infection by HIV-1 is an important component of chronic HIV pathogenesis. Following infection by HIV-1, monocytes are able to cross the blood brain barrier and set up a viral reservoir in the central nervous system. Additionally, in the setting of chronic HIV-1 infection, monocytes can become activated either directly through HIV-1 ...
    TZA, a Sensitive Reporter Cell-based Assay to Accurately and Rapidly Quantify Inducible, Replication-competent Latent HIV-1 from Resting CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Anwesha Sanyal, Vatsala S. Rangachar and Phalguni Gupta, date: 05/20/2019, view: 3388, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The latent HIV-1 viral reservoir in resting CD4+ (rCD4+) T cells represents a major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. There is an ongoing effort to identify therapeutic approaches that will eliminate or reduce the size of this reservoir. However, clinical investigators lack an assay to determine whether or not a decrease in the ...
    Analysis of Early Phase HIV-1 Replication and Integration Events by Using Real-time PCR
    Authors:  Graf Laura, Steven P. Moran, Sally Ro, Carlos M.C. de Noronha and Binshan Shi, date: 02/20/2019, view: 2624, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Upon entry into a host cell, the HIV-1 virus undergoes a series of critical early replication events including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration of its cDNA into the host genome. Molecular assays used to detect and analyze changes in HIV-1 early phase replication events are valuable tools in developing potential antiretroviral ...
    HIVGKO: A Tool to Assess HIV-1 Latency Reversal Agents in Human Primary CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Emilie Battivelli and Eric Verdin, date: 10/20/2018, view: 3422, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] While able to suppress HIV replication in HIV infected individuals, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to eliminate viral latent reservoir, which consists in integrated transcriptional silenced HIV provirus. So far, identification of latently-infected cells has relied on activating cells to induce expression of HIV proteins which can ...
    Retroviral Capsid Core Stability Assay
    Authors:  Tyler Milston Renner, Kasandra Bélanger and Marc-André Langlois, date: 09/20/2018, view: 2817, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Structural stability of the capsid core is a critical parameter for the productive infection of a cell by a retrovirus. Compromised stability can lead to premature core disassembly, exposure of replication intermediates to cytosolic nucleic acid sensors that can trigger innate antiviral responses, and failure to integrate the proviral genome into ...
    Selective Isolation of Retroviruses from Extracellular Vesicles by Intact Virion Immunoprecipitation
    Authors:  Tyler Milston Renner, Kasandra Bélanger and Marc-André Langlois, date: 09/05/2018, view: 3336, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] There exists a wide variety of techniques to isolate and purify viral particles from cell culture supernatants. However, these techniques vary greatly in ease of use, purity, yield and impact on viral structural integrity. Most importantly, it is becoming evident that secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) co-purify with retroviruses using nearly ...



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