Protocols in Current Issue
    Social Defeat Stress (SDS) in Mice: Using Swiss Mice as Resident
    Authors:  Marco Oreste F. Pagliusi Jr. and Cesar R. Sartori, date: 03/20/2019, view: 901, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Due to the high prevalence and great economic impact of depression, studies with animal models have been increasingly used to identify neurobiological mechanisms associated with this disorder. However, many animal models use stressful conditions that are not consistent with what we observe in the modern human world. Examples are the chronic ...
    Behavioral Evaluation of Odor Memory in Mice
    Authors:  Afif J. Aqrabawi and Jun Chul Kim, date: 09/20/2018, view: 1206, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Behavioural tests based on the spontaneous recognition paradigm have been used extensively for examining the memory capacity of rodents. By exploiting their innate preference to investigate novel stimuli, inferences can be drawn about the perceived familiarity of encountered objects. Olfaction is the dominant sense used by mice to navigate their ...
    Sociability and Social Novelty Preference Tests Using a U-shaped Two-choice Field
    Authors:  Eun-Hwa Lee, Jin-Young Park, Yunjin Lee and Pyung-Lim  Han, date: 05/20/2018, view: 2782, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We developed sociability tests based on use of a U-shaped two-choice field to read out behavioral states of sociability in rodents. The U-shaped two-choice field is a modified open field that is partially partitioned with a wall projecting to the central point, resulting in two symmetrical rectangular fields, each containing closed and open square ...
    Touchscreen-based Visual Discrimination and Reversal Tasks for Mice to Test Cognitive Flexibility
    Authors:  Karly M. Turner, Christopher G. Simpson and Thomas H. J. Burne, date: 10/20/2017, view: 4314, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reversal learning can be used to examine deficits in cognitive flexibility, which have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction. However, methods of examining reversal learning have varied substantially between species. Touchscreen technology has allowed researchers to explore cognitive deficits ...
    Predator Odor-induced Freezing Test for Mice
    Author:  Shintaro Otsuka, date: 09/05/2017, view: 3646, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The innate fear response is an emotional response that does not require any previously acquired conditioning. One of the standard methods to analyze the innate fear response is a 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT)-induced freezing test. TMT is an odor originally isolated from anal secretion of the red fox. Acute TMT exposure has been shown to induce ...
    Social Observation Task in a Linear Maze for Rats
    Authors:  Xiang Mou and Daoyun Ji, date: 07/05/2017, view: 3515, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Animals often learn through observing their conspecifics. However, the mechanisms of them obtaining useful knowledge during observation are beginning to be understood. This protocol describes a novel social observation task to test the ‘local enhancement theory’, which proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates one’s ...
    Representation-mediated Aversion as a Model to Study Psychotic-like States in Mice
    Authors:  Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Edgar Soria-Gómez, Guillaume Ferreira and Giovanni Marsicano, date: 06/20/2017, view: 3644, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Several paradigms for rodent models of the cognitive and negative endophenotypes found in schizophrenic patients have been proposed. However, significant efforts are needed in order to study the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related positive symptoms. Recently, it has been shown that these positive symptoms can be studied in rats by using ...
    A Tactile-visual Conditional Discrimination Task for Testing Spatial Working Memory in Rats
    Authors:  Alicia Edsall, Zachary Gemzik and Amy Griffin, date: 05/20/2017, view: 3357, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes a novel dual task comparison across two variants of a tactile-visual conditional discrimination (CD) T-maze task, one is dependent upon spatial working memory (SWM; CDWM) and the other one (CDSTANDARD) is not. The task variants are equivalent in their sensory and motor requirements and overt behavior of the rat. ...
    Measuring Behavioral Individuality in the Acoustic Startle Behavior in Zebrafish
    Authors:  Carlos Pantoja, Adam Hoagland, Elizabeth Carroll, David Schoppik and Ehud Y. Isacoff, date: 04/05/2017, view: 4792, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The objective of this protocol is to provide a detailed description for the construction and use of a behavioral apparatus, the zBox, for high-throughput behavioral measurements in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zBox is used to measure behavior in multiple individuals simultaneously. Individual fish are housed in wells of multi-well ...
    Testing Depression in Mice: a Chronic Social Defeat Stress Model
    Authors:  Hee-Dae Kim, Tanessa Call, Samantha Carotenuto, Ross Johnson and Deveroux Ferguson, date: 04/05/2017, view: 9645, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A vast challenge within neuropsychiatric research has been the development of animal models that accurately reflect symptoms associated with affective disorders. An ethologically valid model that has been shown to be effective in studying depression is the chronic social defeat stress model. In this model, C57BL/6J mice are subjected to chronic ...

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