Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    The Peak Interval Procedure in Rodents: A Tool for Studying the Neurobiological Basis of Interval Timing and Its Alterations in Models of Human Disease
    Authors:  Fuat Balcı and David Freestone, date: 09/05/2020, view: 484, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Animals keep track of time intervals in the seconds to minutes range with, on average, high accuracy but substantial trial-to-trial variability. The ability to detect the statistical signatures of such timing behavior is an indispensable feature of a good and theoretically-tractable testing procedure. A widely used interval timing procedure is the ...
    Sequential Reaching Task for the Study of Motor Skills in Monkeys
    Authors:  Machiko Ohbayashi and Nathalie Picard, date: 08/20/2020, view: 521, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The ability to perform a sequence of movements is a key component of motor skills, such as typing or playing a musical instrument. How the brain binds elementary movements together into meaningful actions has been a topic of much interest. Here, we describe two sequential reaching tasks that we use to investigate the neural substrate of skilled ...
    Multiple Simultaneous Acute Stresses in Mice: Single or Repeated Induction
    [Abstract] Stress is crucial to the survival of an organism, but excessive stress can lead to psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidality. The prevailing notion is that chronic stress promotes adverse outcomes on brain and body health, whereas acute stressors are generally benign. Notably, acute events such mass ...
    The Discrete Paired-trial Variable-delay T-maze Task to Assess Working Memory in Mice
    Authors:  Gian Marco Leggio, Sebastiano Alfio Torrisi and Francesco Papaleo, date: 07/05/2020, view: 671, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Working memory abnormalities involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) dramatically contribute to poor functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia and still represent an unmet therapeutic need. Studies in rodents might provide essential tools to understand the mechanisms underlying PFC-dependent working memory dysfunctions, as well as precious ...
    An Alternative Maze to Assess Novel Object Recognition in Mice
    [Abstract] The novel object recognition (NOR) task is a behavioral test commonly used to evaluate episodic-like declarative memory and it relies on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novelty. Here we present a maze used to evaluate NOR memory in mice that reduces the time of the assay while improving reliability of the measurements by increasing the ...
    Enriched Environment Procedures for Rodents: Creating a Standardized Protocol for Diverse Enrichment to Improve Consistency across Research Studies
    Authors:  Bruce C. Harland and John C. Dalrymple-Alford, date: 06/05/2020, view: 662, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Exposure to environmental enrichment has beneficial effects on learning and memory, diverse neurobiological effects, and promotes recovery of function after brain injury. The effect of enrichment is produced by a combination of increased social interaction, physical activity, spatial complexity, and novelty. Procedures in the literature have, ...
    Protocol for Measuring Free (Low-stress) Exploration in Rats
    Authors:  Wojciech Pisula and Klaudia Modlinska, date: 01/20/2020, view: 1457, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research on exploratory behavior plays a key part in behavioral science. Studying exploratory behavior of laboratory rodents may provide important data about many developmental and neurobiological processes occurring in animal ontogenesis. The proposed protocol for measuring the free (low-stress) exploration behavior in rats is straightforward, ...
    Trial-based Discrimination Procedure for Studying Drug Relapse in Rats
    [Abstract] In abstinent drug addicts, cues formerly associated with drug-taking experiences gain relapse-inducing potency (‘incubate’) over time. Animal models of incubation may help in developing treatments for relapse prevention. However, these models have primarily focused on the role of conditioned stimuli (CSs) signaling drug delivery and not ...
    Social Defeat Stress (SDS) in Mice: Using Swiss Mice as Resident
    Authors:  Marco Oreste F. Pagliusi Jr. and Cesar R. Sartori, date: 03/20/2019, view: 2975, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Due to the high prevalence and great economic impact of depression, studies with animal models have been increasingly used to identify neurobiological mechanisms associated with this disorder. However, many animal models use stressful conditions that are not consistent with what we observe in the modern human world. Examples are the chronic ...
    Behavioral Evaluation of Odor Memory in Mice
    Authors:  Afif J. Aqrabawi and Jun Chul Kim, date: 09/20/2018, view: 2968, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Behavioural tests based on the spontaneous recognition paradigm have been used extensively for examining the memory capacity of rodents. By exploiting their innate preference to investigate novel stimuli, inferences can be drawn about the perceived familiarity of encountered objects. Olfaction is the dominant sense used by mice to navigate their ...



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