Plant Science


    Protocols in Current Issue
    Analysis of Chromosome Condensation/Decondensation During Mitosis by EdU Incorporation in Nigella damascena L. Seedling Roots
    Author:  Eugene V. Sheval, date: 02/05/2018, view: 1822, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] To investigate the chromosome dynamics during mitosis, it is convenient to mark the discrete chromosome foci and then analyze their spatial rearrangements during prophase condensation and telophase decondensation. To label the chromosome regions in plant chromosomes, we incorporated the synthetic nucleotide, 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU), which ...
    Biomechanical Characterization of Onion Epidermal Cell Walls
    Authors:  Daniel M. Durachko, Yong Bum Park, Tian Zhang and Daniel J. Cosgrove, date: 12/20/2017, view: 3870, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Here we describe two experimental protocols to measure the biomechanical properties of primary (growing) plant cell walls, with a focus on analyzing cell wall epidermal strips of onion scales. The first protocol measures cell wall creep (time-dependent irreversible extension) under constant force. Such creep is often mediated by the wall-loosening ...
    Using Light and Electron Microscopy to Estimate Structural Variation in Thylakoid Membranes
    Authors:  Hatsumi Nozue and Kiyokazu Kametani, date: 12/05/2017, view: 3256, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The shapes of chloroplasts and the architectures of internal thylakoid membranes are altered by growth and environmental changes (Lichtenthaler et al., 1981; Kutik, 1985; Terashima and Hikosaka, 1995). These morphological alterations proceed via transitional intermediates, during which dynamic and heterogeneous thylakoid membranes are ...
    Simple Methods for Screening and Statistical Analysis of Leaf Epidermal Cells in Dicotyledonous Plants
    Authors:  Jian-Jun Tao, Shou-Yi Chen and Jin-Song Zhang, date: 09/05/2016, view: 5879, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Leaf epidermal cell size and number are positively correlated to leaf area. Stomata are specialized epidermal cells vital for gas exchange and water transpiration. So, observation and statistical analysis of the leaf epidermal cells are valuable for the study of leaf development and response to environmental stimulus. The classical method is using ...
    In vitro Microtubule Binding Assay and Dissociation Constant Estimation
    Authors:  Christopher Kesten, René Schneider and Staffan Persson, date: 03/20/2016, view: 7765, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microtubules (MTs) support an astonishing set of versatile cellular functions ranging from cell division, vesicle transport, and cell and tissue morphogenesis in various organisms. This versatility is in large mediated by MT-associated proteins (MAPs). The neuronal MAP Tau, for example, is stabilizing MTs in axons of the vertebrate nervous system ...
    Super-resolution Imaging of Live BY2 Cells Using 3D-structured Illumination Microscopy
    Authors:  Karen Bell, Karl Oparka and Kirsten Knox, date: 01/05/2016, view: 4943, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Light microscopy is the standard tool for studying sub-cellular structures however, owing to the diffractive properties of light, resolution is limited to 200 nm. Super-resolution microscopy methods circumvent this limit, offering greater resolution, particularly when studying fluorescently labeled sub-cellular structures. Super-resolution methods ...
    Observation of Chloroplast Movement in Vallisneria
    Authors:  Yuuki Sakai and Shingo Takagi, date: 11/05/2015, view: 5061, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chloroplasts accumulate to weak light and escape from strong light. These light-induced responses have been known from the 19th century (Böhm, 1856). Up to now, many scientists have developed different methods to investigate these dynamic phenomena in a variety of plant species including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a terrestrial ...
    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Analysis of Cell Wall Structural Glycoproteins in vitro
    Authors:  Yuning Chen, Liwei Chen, Marcia J. Kieliszewsk and Maura C. Cannon, date: 07/20/2015, view: 4725, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are major protein components in dicot primary cell walls and generally account for more than 10% of the wall dry weight. As essential members of the HRGP superfamily, extensins (EXTs) presumably function in the cell wall by assembling into positively charged protein scaffolds (Cannon et al., 2008) ...
    Real-time Analysis of Lateral Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis
    Authors:  Peter Marhavý and Eva Benková, date: 04/20/2015, view: 5698, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plants maintain capacity to form new organs such as leaves, flowers, lateral shoots and roots throughout their postembryonic lifetime. Lateral roots (LRs) originate from a few pericycle cells that acquire attributes of founder cells (FCs), undergo series of anticlinal divisions, and give rise to a few short initial cells. After initiation, ...
    Transmission Electron Microscopy for Tobacco Chloroplast Ultrastructure
    Authors:  Lina Yin, Shiwen Wang, Norihiro Shimomura and Kiyoshi Tanaka, date: 02/20/2015, view: 5830, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis that enabled and sustains aerobic life on Earth. Chloroplasts are relatively large organelles with a diameter of ~5 μm and width of ~2.5 μm, and so can be readily analysed by electron microscopy. Each chloroplast is enclosed by two envelope membranes, which encompass an aqueous matrix, the stroma and ...

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