Protocols in Current Issue
    Biofilm Formation Assay in Pseudomonas syringae
    Authors:  Xiaolong Shao, Yingpeng Xie, Yingchao Zhang and Xin Deng, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1260, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Pseudomonas syringae is a model plant pathogen that infects more than 50 plant species worldwide, thus leading to significant yield loss. Pseudomonas biofilm always adheres to the surfaces of medical devices or host cells, thereby contributing to infection. Biofilm formation can be visualized on numerous matrixes, including ...
    Glycogen and Extracellular Glucose Estimation from Cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    Authors:  Md. Rezaul Islam Khan, Yushu Wang, Shajia Afrin, Lin He and Gang Ma, date: 05/05/2018, view: 2316, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cyanobacteria, which have the extraordinary ability to grow using sunlight and carbon dioxide, are emerging as a green host to produce value-added products. Exploitation of this highly promising host to make products may depend on the ability to modulate the glucose metabolic pathway; it is the key metabolic pathway that generates intermediates ...
    Determination of Intracellular Osmolytes in Cyanobacterial Cells
    Authors:  Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song, Cuncun Qiao and Xuefeng Lu, date: 04/20/2018, view: 2126, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Most of the cyanobacteria accumulate osmolytes including sucrose, glucosylglycerol, in their cells in response to salt stress. Here we describe a protocol of our laboratory for extraction and quantification of cyanobacterial intracellular sucrose and glucosylglycerol. We have confirmed this protocol was applicable to at least four kinds of ...
    Preparation of the Partially Methylated Alditol Acetates Derived from CS Tetrasaccharides Containing Galactose for the Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis
    Authors:  Kyohei Higashi and Toshihiko Toida, date: 11/05/2017, view: 4282, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family of carbohydrates, is composed of linear, sulfated repeating disaccharide sequences of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA). Recently, a keratan sulfate (KS) disaccharide [GlcNAc6S(β1-3)Galactose(β1-]-branched CS-E was identified ...
    Observation of Pneumococcal Phase Variation in Colony Morphology
    Authors:  Jing Li, Juanjuan Wang, Fangfang Jiao and Jing-Ren Zhang, date: 08/05/2017, view: 4675, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen that causes pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and otitis media. This bacterium normally resides in the nasopharynx as a commensal, but sometimes disseminates to sterile sites of humans and causes local or systemic inflammation. This biphasic behavior of S. pneumoniae ...
    Separation and Purification of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Tabea Dierker and Lena Kjellén, date: 08/05/2017, view: 5400, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model organism for studies of developmental biology, neurology, ageing and other fields of basic research. Because many developmental processes are regulated by glycosaminoglyans (GAGs) on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix, methods to isolate and analyze C. elegans GAGs ...
    Isolation of Keratan Sulfate Disaccharide-branched Chondroitin Sulfate E from Mactra chinensis
    Authors:  Kyohei Higashi and Toshihiko Toida, date: 08/05/2017, view: 3610, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparin (HP), heparan sulfate (HS) and keratan sulfate (KS) are linear, sulfated repeating disaccharide sequences containing hexosamine and uronic acid (or galactose in the case of KS). Recently, a keratan sulfate (KS) disaccharide [GlcNAc6S ...
    Heparan Sulfate Identification and Characterisation: Method II. Enzymatic Depolymerisation and SAX-HPLC Analysis to Determine Disaccharide Composition
    Authors:  Susan M. Carnachan and Simon F.R. Hinkley, date: 04/05/2017, view: 4938, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Heparan sulfate (HS) is purified from complex matrices and often not fully characterised to validate its assignment. The characterisation of heparins and heparan sulfates through enzymatic depolymerisation and subsequent strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) analysis and quantitation of the resulting disaccharides ...
    Heparan Sulfate Identification and Characterisation: Method I. Heparan Sulfate Identification by NMR Analysis
    Authors:  Susan M. Carnachan and Simon F.R. Hinkley, date: 04/05/2017, view: 4435, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) may be purified from complex biological matrices and are often isolated in sub-milligram quantities but not unequivocally identified by spectroscopic means. This protocol details a methodology to rapidly assess the gross compositional features and approximate purity of HS by 1H nuclear magnetic ...
    Chitin Extraction and Content Measurement in Magnaporthe oryzae
    Authors:  Xinyu Liu and Zhengguang Zhang, date: 03/05/2017, view: 4579, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chitin is a linear polysaccharide composed of β (1→4)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. In fungi, chitin is an important component of the cell wall. Here, we provide a protocol to measure the chitin content of fungal cells using Magnaporthe oryzae as an example.

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