Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Inducing Alcohol Dependence in Rats Using Chronic Intermittent Exposure to Alcohol Vapor
    Authors:  Elizabeth M. Avegno and Nicholas W. Gilpin, date: 05/05/2019, view: 1109, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a significant public health and economic burden and is often characterized by repeated bouts of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Virtually all organ systems are impacted by chronic alcohol exposure. These effects can be investigated using the rat as a model organism; however, rats typically will not ...
    A New Efficient Method for Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate Directly ex vivo in Human Epidermal Biopsies
    Authors:  Daniel Schniertshauer, Daniel Gebhard and Jörg Bergemann, date: 03/05/2019, view: 1325, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Skin cells are constantly exposed to environmental influences such as air pollution, chemicals, pathogens and UV radiation. UV radiation can damage different biological structures, but most importantly cellular DNA. Mitochondria contain their own genome and accumulate UV-induced DNA mutations to a large extent. This can result, e.g., in ...
    Insulin Tolerance Test under Anaesthesia to Measure Tissue-specific Insulin-stimulated Glucose Disposal
    [Abstract] Insulin resistance is a pathophysiological state defined by impaired responses to insulin and is a risk factor for several metabolic diseases, most notably type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs in insulin target tissues including liver, adipose and skeletal muscle. Methods such as insulin tolerance tests and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic ...
    Eye Drops for Delivery of Bioactive Compounds and BrdU to Stimulate Proliferation and Label Mitotically Active Cells in the Adult Rodent Retina
    Authors:  Cindy L. Linn, Sarah E. Webster and Mark K. Webster, date: 11/05/2018, view: 1621, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Eye drop treatments are typically used to apply drugs to the anterior structures of the eye. Recently, however, studies have demonstrated that eye drops can reach the retina in the back of the eye if pharmacological agents are carried in appropriate vehicles. Here, we introduce an eye drop procedure to deliver a drug (PNU-282987), in combination ...
    Vascular Permeability Assay in Human Coronary and Mouse Brachiocephalic Arteries
    [Abstract] Coronary artery disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous work, including ours, has focused on the role of intraplaque hemorrhage, particularly from immature microvessel angiogenesis, as an important contributor to plaque progression via increases in vascular permeability leading to further intraplaque hemorrhage, ...
    Artificial Inhalation Protocol in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Thomas P. Eiting and Matt Wachowiak, date: 09/20/2018, view: 1656, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research in the area of in vivo olfactory physiology benefits from having direct access to the nasal airways through which odorants can be presented. Ordinarily, the passage of odorants through the airways is controlled by respiratory rhythm. This fact makes it difficult to control the timing and strength of an olfactory stimulus, since ...
    Hyaluronan Isolation from Mouse Mammary Gland
    Authors:  Cornelia Tolg, Mary Cowman and Eva A. Turley, date: 06/05/2018, view: 2001, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a key component of the extracellular matrix. The molecular weight of HA is heterogeneous and can reach from several million to several hundred daltons. The effect of HA on cell behavior is size dependent; fragmented HA acts as a danger signal, stimulates cell migration and proliferation and is ...
    Ex vivo Follicle Rupture and in situ Zymography in Drosophila
    Authors:  Elizabeth M Knapp, Lylah D Deady and Jianjun Sun, date: 05/20/2018, view: 2833, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ovulation, the process of releasing a mature oocyte from the ovary, is crucial for animal reproduction. In order for the process of ovulation to occur, a follicle must be fully matured and signaled to rupture from the ovary. During follicle rupture in both mammals and Drosophila, somatic follicle cells are enzymatically degraded to allow ...
    Common Carotid Arteries Occlusion Surgery in Adult Rats as a Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion
    Authors:  Dandan Cao, Yunfei Bai and Liang Li, date: 01/20/2018, view: 4796, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is an important risk factor of vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Hypoxia/ischemia in the whole brain induced by CCH causes serious damage to brain structure and function, which can lead to cognitive impairment. Two-vessel occlusion (2-VO), also known as permanent, bilateral common carotid ...
    A Rodent Model for Chronic Brain Hypoperfusion Related Diseases: Permanent Bilateral Occlusion of the Common Carotid Arteries (2VO) in Rats
    Authors:  Mei-Ling Yan and Jing Ai, date: 01/05/2018, view: 3975, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rat is considered as a suitable animal model to mimic chronic brain hypoperfusion status, which is proved to be a risk factor to precede the Alzheimer’s disease or/and vascular dementia. In this protocol, we describe how to successfully ligate the bilateral common carotid arteries ...



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