Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    A Potent Vaccine Delivery System
    Authors:  Guangzu Zhao, Armira Azuar, Istvan Toth and Mariusz Skwarczynski, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1050, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Most vaccines require co-delivery of an adjuvant in order to generate the desired immune responses. However, many currently available adjuvants are non-biodegradable, have limited efficacy, and/or poor safety profile. Thus, new adjuvants, or self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery systems, are required. Here, we proposed a self-adjuvanting delivery

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    Quantitative Measurement of Mucolytic Enzymes in Fecal Samples
    Authors:  Shahanshah Khan and Hasan Zaki, date: 03/20/2021, view: 1231, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The mucus layer in the gastrointestinal tract covers the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells, protecting the mucosal tissue from enteric pathogen and commensal microorganisms. The mucus is primarily composed of glycosylated protein called mucins, which are produced by goblet cells, a type of columnar epithelial cells in the intestinal

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    Method for Measuring Mucociliary Clearance and Cilia-generated Flow in Mice by ex vivo Imaging
    Authors:  Eric Song and Akiko Iwasaki, date: 03/20/2020, view: 2023, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ex vivo biophysical measurements provide valuable insights into understanding both physiological and pathogenic processes. One critical physiological mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which is known to provide protection against foreign particles and ...
    Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Vaccine Responses by Cyclic di-GMP (CDG)-adjuvanted Protein Subunit Vaccines
    Authors:  Samira Mansouri and Lei Jin, date: 04/20/2019, view: 2718, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Intranasal administration of vaccine adjuvants directly deliver therapeutic agents to the lungs to induce potent lung mucosal immune responses. Cyclic di-GMP (CDG) is a promising mucosal vaccine adjuvant candidate capable of inducing protective immunity. This protocol describes an in vivo approach to induce and detect mucosal (lung) and ...
    Eimeria vermiformis Infection Model of Murine Small Intestine
    Authors:  Patrícia Figueiredo-Campos, Cristina Ferreira, Birte Blankenhaus and Marc Veldhoen, date: 12/20/2018, view: 3247, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Eimeria vermiformis is a tissue specific, intracellular protozoan that infects the murine small intestinal epithelia, which has been widely used as a coccidian model to study mucosal immunology. This mouse infection model is valuable to investigate the mechanisms of host protection against primary and secondary infection in the small ...
    Eicosanoid Isolation from Mouse Intestinal Tissue for ELISA
    Author:  Isabella Rauch, date: 11/05/2018, view: 2601, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Activation of inflammasomes in peritoneal macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) leads to the release of eicosanoids. To assess the amount of eicosanoids released by IEC, lipids need to be isolated from whole tissue previous to analysis by lipid mass spectrometry or ELISA. This protocol describes how to isolate lipids from intestinal ...
    Purification of Total RNA from DSS-treated Murine Tissue via Lithium Chloride Precipitation
    Authors:  Emilie Viennois, Anika Tahsin and Didier Merlin, date: 05/05/2018, view: 5414, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We have developed a protocol to purify RNA from DSS (Dextran Sulfate Sodium)-treated mouse tissues. This method, which prevents downstream inhibition of q-RT-PCR observed in DSS-treated tissues, relies on successive precipitations with lithium chloride.
    Adhesion of Enteroaggregative E. coli Strains to HEK293 Cells
    Authors:  Jorge Luis Ayala-Lujan and Fernando Ruiz-Perez, date: 04/20/2018, view: 4482, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a recognized cause of acute diarrhea among both children and adults worldwide. EAEC strains are characterized by the presence of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF), which play a key role in pathogenesis by mediating attachment to the intestinal mucosa and by triggering host inflammatory ...
    Immunofluorescence Analysis of Human Endocervical Tissue Explants Infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Authors:  Liang-Chun Wang, Qian Yu, Daniel C. Stein and Wenxia Song, date: 02/05/2018, view: 4676, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Colonization and penetration of the epithelium is the infection-initiating route of mucosal pathogens. The epithelium counteracts infection by eliciting host cell responses while maintaining the mucosal barrier function. The obligate human sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or gonococcus (GC) infects the female ...
    Oral Microbiome Characterization in Murine Models
    [Abstract] The oral microbiome has been implicated as a trigger for immune responsiveness in the oral cavity, particularly in the setting of the inflammatory disease periodontitis. The protocol presented here is aimed at characterizing the oral microbiome in murine models at steady state and during perturbations of immunity or physiology. Herein, we describe ...



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