Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Isolation and Stimulation of Peritoneal Macrophages with Apoptotic Jurkat Cells to Produce IL-10
    Authors:  Mei Song and Xiaojing Ma, date: 12/20/2019, view: 306, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Macrophage recognition of apoptotic cells triggers an anti-inflammatory response, which is mediated by the release of IL-10, TGF-β etc. with concurrent inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα, IL-12, ...
    Propagation and Purification of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 Transformants and Mutants
    Authors:  Robert Faris and Mary M. Weber, date: 12/20/2019, view: 274, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) is an obligate intracellular pathogen that cannot be cultured axenically and must be propagated within eukaryotic host cells. There are at least 15 distinct chlamydial serovariants that belong to 2 major biovars commonly referred to as trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). The invasive ...
    Lysosome Targeting RedGreen-assay: Selective Autophagy Sensing Assay for Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Victoria Riccio, Miluska Vissa, Angus McQuibban and Peter Kijun Kim, date: 12/20/2019, view: 542, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The process of autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism, required to maintain general cell health through the removal of dysfunctional organelles, such as the ER, peroxisomes and mitochondria, as well as protein aggregates, and bacteria. Autophagy is an extremely dynamic process, and tools are constantly being developed to study the various ...
    Preparation of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Germ-free Larvae for Host-gut Microbes Interaction Studies
    Authors:  Abrar Muhammad, Prosper Habineza, Youming Hou and Zhanghong Shi, date: 12/20/2019, view: 324, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is a devastating pest of palm trees worldwide. RPW gut is colonized by diverse bacterial species which profoundly influence host development and nutritional metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota remain mostly ...
    cDNA Display Mediated Immuno-PCR (cD-IPCR): A Novel PCR-based Antigen Detection Method
    Authors:  Chathuni Jayathilake, Takuya Terai and Naoto Nemoto, date: 12/20/2019, view: 480, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Immuno-PCR (IPCR) is a powerful method in antigen detection where a PCR-amplifiable DNA reporter is conjugated to a specific antibody or an aptamer for the target molecule. In the development and application of IPCR, successful conjugation of a protein (an antibody) with a reporter DNA becomes challenging. To address this issue, we recently ...
    Quantification of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Leishmania-infected J774A.1 Macrophages as a Response to the in vitro Treatment with a Natural Product Compound
    Authors:  Kalliopi Karampetsou, Olga S. Koutsoni and Eleni Dotsika, date: 12/05/2019, view: 305, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the obligatory intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. Current therapeutic options are limited and thus, drug discovery against leishmaniasis is very important. Nevertheless, there is a great difficulty to develop therapeutic strategies against the disease because the parasite deploys various ...
    Bacterial Synchronized Transfer Assays in Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
    Authors:  Sedelia R Dominguez, Tom Kawula and Shaun P Steele, date: 11/20/2019, view: 465, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Merocytophagy (“mero”, Greek for partial; “cytophagy” for cell eating) is a process by which cells acquire microbes and cytosolic material through phagocytosis of a small portion of neighboring cells upon cell-cell contact. Cell-cell contact dependent transfer events can be assessed through co-incubation of differently labeled cells. With these ...
    Adoptive Transfer of Basophils Enriched from Mouse Spleen
    Authors:  Adrian M. Piliponsky and Stephen J. Galli, date: 11/05/2019, view: 397, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] CD49b is a member of the integrin family, expressed on basophils, natural killer (NK) cells and a subset CD4+ T cells in the spleen. This protocol describes the adoptive transfer of basophil-enriched CD49b+ cells obtained from mouse spleens by magnetic enrichment. This protocol can be used to assess the contribution of ...
    Amplex Red Assay for Measuring Hydrogen Peroxide Production from Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Ozgur Karakuzu, Melissa R. Cruz, Yi Liu and Danielle A. Garsin, date: 11/05/2019, view: 569, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reagents such as Amplex® Red have been developed for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and are used to measure the release of H2O2 from biological samples such as mammalian leukocytes undergoing the oxidative burst. Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a model host in the study ...
    Platelet Isolation and Activation Assays
    Authors:  Laura C. Burzynski, Nicholas Pugh and Murray C.H. Clarke, date: 10/20/2019, view: 906, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Platelets regulate hemostasis and are the key determinants of pathogenic thrombosis following atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Platelets circulate in an inactive state, but become activated in response to damage to the endothelium, which exposes thrombogenic material such as collagen to the blood flow. Activation results in a number of responses, ...



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