Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Pea Aphid Rearing, Bacterial Infection and Hemocyte Phagocytosis Assay
    Authors:  Li Ma, Lu Liu and Zhiqiang Lu, date: 12/20/2020, view: 391, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Insects rely on the simple but effective innate immune system to combat infection. Cellular and humoral responses are interconnected and synergistic in insects’ innate immune system. Phagocytosis is one major cellular response. It is difficult to collect clean hemolymph from the small insect like pea aphid. Here, we provide a practicable

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    RNA ImmunoGenic Assay: A Method to Detect Immunogenicity of in vitro Transcribed mRNA in Human Whole Blood
    [Abstract] The mRNA therapeutics is a new class of medicine to treat many various diseases. However, in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA triggers immune responses due to recognition by human endosomal and cytoplasmic RNA sensors, but incorporation of modified nucleosides have been shown to reduce such responses. Therefore, an assay signifying important ...
    Preparation of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Larvae for the Study of Host Skin Response
    Authors:  Tiffany Bouchery, Gillian Coakley and Nicola L. Harris, date: 12/20/2020, view: 362, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Hookworms are skin penetrating parasites, however in the laboratory the hookworm model Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the parasite is traditionally administered subcutaneously bypassing the skin (epidermis and dermis). Here, we describe two complementary approaches for infecting mice with N. brasiliensis in order to study the skin immune responses.

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    Protocol for Isolation, Stimulation and Functional Profiling of Primary and iPSC-derived Human NK Cells
    [Abstract]

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells, characterized by their cytotoxic capacity, and chemokine and cytokine secretion upon activation. Human NK cells are identified by CD56 expression. Circulating NK cells can be further subdivided into the CD56bright (~10%) and CD56dim NK cell subsets (~90%). NK cell-like cells can also be derived

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    Analysis of B Cell Migration by Intravital Microscopy
    [Abstract]

    During immune responses, B cells home to lymph nodes (LN), where they encounter antigens. Homing starts with capture and L-selectin-dependent rolling on the activated endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV). After recognition of chemokines presented on HEV, activation of B cell integrins occurs mediating firm arrest. Subsequently, B cells

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    Magnet-assisted Flow Cytometry of in vivo Tumors to Quantitate Cell-specific Responses to Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
    Authors:  Preethi Korangath and Robert Ivkov, date: 11/20/2020, view: 669, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A clear understanding of nanoparticle interactions with living systems at the cellular level is necessary for developing nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles provide unique opportunities to study these interactions because of their responsiveness to magnetic fields. This enables sorting of cells containing ...
    Generating Three-dimensional Human Granulomas in vitro to Study Mycobacterium tuberculosis-host Interaction
    Authors:  Ainhoa Arbués, Michael Kammüller and Damien Portevin, date: 11/20/2020, view: 681, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Granulomas are organized multicellular structures that constitute the hallmark of an infection by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A better understanding of the complex host-Mtb interactions within the granuloma’s environment may lead to new therapeutic or preventive tools to improve the control of the ...
    Maternal Immune Activation with the Viral Mimetic Poly:IC in Pregnant Rats
    Authors:  Thaisa Meira Sandini, Quentin Greba, Brittney Rose Lins and John George Howland, date: 11/20/2020, view: 605, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) is increasingly well appreciated as an environmental risk factor for some psychiatric disorders. Administration of proinflammatory compounds such as the synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) to pregnant rodents results in the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the

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    Super-resolution Imaging of the T cell Central Supramolecular Signaling Cluster Using Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy
    Authors:  Sin Lih Tan, Dominic Alibhai, Stephen J. Cross, Harry Thompson and Christoph Wülfing, date: 11/05/2020, view: 576, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Supramolecular signaling assemblies are of interest for their unique signaling properties. A µm scale signaling assembly, the central supramolecular signaling cluster (cSMAC), forms at the center interface of T cells activated by antigen presenting cells (APC). The adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a key cSMAC component.

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    Site-specific Labeling of B Cell Receptor and Soluble Immunoglobulin
    Authors:  Yu Wang, Zhixun Shen, Zhengpeng Wan and Wanli Liu, date: 09/20/2020, view: 1490, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] B lymphocyte activation is regulated by its membrane-bound B cell receptors (BCRs) upon recognizing diverse antigens. It is hypothesized that antigen binding would trigger conformational changes within BCRs, followed by a series of downstream signaling activation. To measure the BCR conformational changes in live cells, a fluorescent site-specific ...



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