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Thinned-skulled Cranial Window Preparation (Mice)

Featured protocol,  Authors: Lifeng Zhang
Lifeng ZhangAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
For correspondence: lfzhang916@hotmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a4186
Bo Liang
Bo LiangAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4187
Yun Li
Yun LiAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4188
 and Da-Ting Lin
Da-Ting LinAffiliation 1: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Affiliation 2: The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, USA
Affiliation 3: The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4189
date: 3/5/2017, 145 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2158.

Brief version appeared in Nat Neurosci, Apr 2016
Imaging structural plasticity or activity of neurons in the brain circuit will facilitate understanding the neural mechanisms underlying animal behavior. Here we describe a modified procedure, the polished and reinforced thinned-skull cranial window preparation, by which we can image dendrites and spines in mouse layer I cortex for weeks (Zhang et al., 2016). By this method, we also imaged the glioma initiation in the mouse cortex for two weeks in previous work (Zhang et al., 2012), which included the photographs and video for reference.

Olfactory Habituation-dishabituation Test (Mouse)

Featured protocol,  Authors: Hiroo Takahashi
Hiroo TakahashiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a4174
 and Akio Tsuboi
Akio TsuboiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
For correspondence: atsuboi@naramed-u.ac.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a4175
date: 3/5/2017, 148 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2154.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Aug 2016
Olfaction plays a fundamental role for the various behaviors such as feeding, mating, nursing, and avoidance in mice. Behavioral tests that characterize abilities of odor detection and recognition using genetically modified mice reveal the contribution of target genes to the olfactory processing. Here, we describe the olfactory habituation-dishabituation test for investigating the odor detection threshold in mice.

Olfactory Avoidance Test (Mouse)

Featured protocol,  Authors: Hiroo Takahashi
Hiroo TakahashiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a4174
 and Akio Tsuboi
Akio TsuboiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
For correspondence: atsuboi@naramed-u.ac.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a4175
date: 3/5/2017, 140 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2153.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Aug 2016
In mice, olfaction plays a pivotal role for the various behaviors, such as feeding, mating, nursing and avoidance. Behavioral tests that analyze abilities of odor detection and recognition using genetically modified mice reveal the contribution of target genes to the olfactory processing. Here, we describe the olfactory avoidance test to investigate the odor detection ability in mice.

Axonal Conduction Velocity Measurement

Featured protocol,  Authors: Margaret Louise DeMaegd
Margaret Louise DeMaegdAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4177
Carola Städele
Carola StädeleAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: carola@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4150
 and Wolfgang Stein
Wolfgang SteinAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: wstein@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4151
date: 3/5/2017, 168 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2152.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Jun 2016
Action potential conduction velocity is the speed at which an action potential (AP) propagates along an axon. Measuring AP conduction velocity is instrumental in determining neuron health, function, and computational capability, as well as in determining short-term dynamics of neuronal communication and AP initiation (Ballo and Bucher, 2009; Bullock, 1951; Meeks and Mennerick, 2007; Rosenthal and Bezanilla, 2000; Städele and Stein, 2016; Swadlow and Waxman, 1976). Conduction velocity can be measured using extracellular recordings along the nerve through which the axon projects. Depending on the number of axons in the nerve, AP velocities of individual or many axons can be detected.

Extracellular Axon Stimulation

Featured protocol,  Authors: Carola Städele
Carola StädeleAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: carola@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4150
Margaret Louise DeMaegd
Margaret Louise DeMaegdAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4177
 and Wolfgang Stein
Wolfgang SteinAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: wstein@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4151
date: 3/5/2017, 153 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2151.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Jun 2016
This is a detailed protocol explaining how to perform extracellular axon stimulations as described in Städele and Stein, 2016. The ability to stimulate and record action potentials is essential to electrophysiological examinations of neuronal function. Extracellular stimulation of axons traveling in fiber bundles (nerves) is a classical technique in brain research and a fundamental tool in neurophysiology (Abbas and Miller, 2004; Barry, 2015; Basser and Roth, 2000; Cogan, 2008). It allows for activating action potentials in individual or multiple axons, controlling their firing frequency, provides information about the speed of neuronal communication, and neuron health and function.

Thinned-skulled Cranial Window Preparation (Mice)

Authors: Lifeng Zhang
Lifeng ZhangAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
For correspondence: lfzhang916@hotmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a4186
Bo Liang
Bo LiangAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4187
Yun Li
Yun LiAffiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4188
 and Da-Ting Lin
Da-Ting LinAffiliation 1: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA
Affiliation 2: The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, USA
Affiliation 3: The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4189
date: 3/5/2017, 145 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2158.

[Abstract] Imaging structural plasticity or activity of neurons in the brain circuit will facilitate understanding the neural mechanisms underlying animal behavior. Here we describe a modified procedure, the polished and reinforced thinned-skull cranial window preparation, by which we can image dendrites and spines in mouse layer I cortex for weeks (Zhang et ...

Olfactory Habituation-dishabituation Test (Mouse)

Authors: Hiroo Takahashi
Hiroo TakahashiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a4174
 and Akio Tsuboi
Akio TsuboiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
For correspondence: atsuboi@naramed-u.ac.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a4175
date: 3/5/2017, 148 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2154.

[Abstract] Olfaction plays a fundamental role for the various behaviors such as feeding, mating, nursing, and avoidance in mice. Behavioral tests that characterize abilities of odor detection and recognition using genetically modified mice reveal the contribution of target genes to the olfactory processing. Here, we describe the olfactory habituation-dishabituation ...

Olfactory Avoidance Test (Mouse)

Authors: Hiroo Takahashi
Hiroo TakahashiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a4174
 and Akio Tsuboi
Akio TsuboiAffiliation: Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Neural System, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara, Japan
For correspondence: atsuboi@naramed-u.ac.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a4175
date: 3/5/2017, 140 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2153.

[Abstract] In mice, olfaction plays a pivotal role for the various behaviors, such as feeding, mating, nursing and avoidance. Behavioral tests that analyze abilities of odor detection and recognition using genetically modified mice reveal the contribution of target genes to the olfactory processing. Here, we describe the olfactory avoidance test to investigate ...

Axonal Conduction Velocity Measurement

Authors: Margaret Louise DeMaegd
Margaret Louise DeMaegdAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4177
Carola Städele
Carola StädeleAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: carola@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4150
 and Wolfgang Stein
Wolfgang SteinAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: wstein@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4151
date: 3/5/2017, 168 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2152.

[Abstract] Action potential conduction velocity is the speed at which an action potential (AP) propagates along an axon. Measuring AP conduction velocity is instrumental in determining neuron health, function, and computational capability, as well as in determining short-term dynamics of neuronal communication and AP initiation (Ballo and Bucher, 2009; Bullock, ...

Extracellular Axon Stimulation

Authors: Carola Städele
Carola StädeleAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: carola@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4150
Margaret Louise DeMaegd
Margaret Louise DeMaegdAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a4177
 and Wolfgang Stein
Wolfgang SteinAffiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA
For correspondence: wstein@neurobiologie.de
Bio-protocol author page: a4151
date: 3/5/2017, 153 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2151.

[Abstract] This is a detailed protocol explaining how to perform extracellular axon stimulations as described in Städele and Stein, 2016. The ability to stimulate and record action potentials is essential to electrophysiological examinations of neuronal function. Extracellular stimulation of axons traveling in fiber bundles (nerves) is a classical technique in ...

Cued Rat Gambling Task

Authors: Michael M. Barrus
Michael M. BarrusAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4033
 and Catharine A. Winstanley
Catharine A. WinstanleyAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
For correspondence: cwinstanley@psych.ubc.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4034
date: 2/5/2017, 265 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2118.

[Abstract] The ability of salient cues to serve as powerful motivators has long been recognized in models of drug addiction, but little has been done to investigate their effects on complex decision making. The Cued rat Gambling Task (CrGT) is an operant behavioural task which pairs salient, audiovisual cues with the delivery of sucrose pellet rewards on complex ...

Heterochronic Pellet Assay to Test Cell-cell Communication in the Mouse Retina

Authors: Nobuhiko Tachibana
Nobuhiko TachibanaAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4105
Dawn Zinyk
Dawn ZinykAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4106
Randy Ringuette
Randy RinguetteAffiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4107
Valerie Wallace
Valerie WallaceAffiliation 1: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Affiliation 2: Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
For correspondence: vwallace@uhnresearch.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4108
 and Carol Schuurmans
Carol SchuurmansAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
For correspondence: cschuurm@sri.utoronto.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4109
date: 2/5/2017, 338 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2117.

[Abstract] All seven retinal cell types that make up the mature retina are generated from a common, multipotent pool of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) (Wallace, 2011). One way that RPCs know when sufficient numbers of particular cell-types have been generated is through negative feedback signals, which are emitted by differentiated cells and must reach threshold ...

An Acute Mouse Spinal Cord Slice Preparation for Studying Glial Activation ex vivo

Authors: Juan Mauricio Garré
Juan Mauricio GarréAffiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care and Pain Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
For correspondence: Juan.GarreCastro@nyumc.org
Bio-protocol author page: a3981
Guang Yang
Guang YangAffiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care and Pain Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3982
Feliksas F. Bukauskas
Feliksas F. BukauskasAffiliation 1: Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
Bio-protocol author page: a3983
 and Michael V. L. Bennett
Michael V. L. BennettAffiliation: Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3985
date: 1/20/2017, 412 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2102.

[Abstract] Pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and chronic pain are characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia in spinal cord and have been modeled in rodents. In vivo imaging at cellular level in these animal models is limited due to the spinal cord’s highly myelinated funiculi. The preparation of acute ...

Primary Culture of Mouse Neurons from the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

Authors: De-Li Cao
De-Li CaoAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3992
Peng-Bo Jing
Peng-Bo JingAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3742
Bao-Chun Jiang
Bao-Chun JiangAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3994
 and Yong-Jing Gao
Yong-Jing GaoAffiliation 1: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Affiliation 2: Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
For correspondence: gaoyongjing@hotmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3743
date: 1/5/2017, 481 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2098.

[Abstract] Primary afferents of sensory neurons mainly terminate in the spinal cord dorsal horn, which has an important role in the integration and modulation of sensory-related signals. Primary culture of mouse spinal dorsal horn neuron (SDHN) is useful for studying signal transmission from peripheral nervous system to the brain, as well as for developing cellular ...

Optogenetic Mapping of Synaptic Connections in Mouse Brain Slices to Define the Functional Connectome of Identified Neuronal Populations

Authors: Susana Mingote
Susana MingoteAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3960
Nao Chuhma
Nao ChuhmaAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3961
 and Stephen Rayport
Stephen RayportAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
For correspondence: stephen.rayport@columbia.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3962
date: 1/5/2017, 459 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2090.

[Abstract] Functional connectivity in a neural circuit is determined by the strength, incidence, and neurotransmitter nature of its connections (Chuhma, 2015). Using optogenetics the functional synaptic connections between an identified population of neurons and defined postsynaptic target neurons may be measured systematically in order to determine the functional ...
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Immunofluorescence Staining on Mouse Embryonic Brain Sections

Author: Xuecai Ge
Xuecai GeAffiliation 1: Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Affiliation 2: , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, USA
For correspondence: xuecaige@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a46
date: 6/5/2012, 11089 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.192.

[Abstract] This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse embryonic brains, starting from tissue preparation to mounting of the tissue sections....

Stereotaxic Injection of LPS into Mouse Substantia Nigra

Author: Huiming Gao
Huiming GaoAffiliation: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
For correspondence: gao2@niehs.nih.gov
Bio-protocol author page: a17
date: 4/20/2012, 11085 views, 4 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.153.

[Abstract] Stereotaxic injection is an attractive approach for studying genetic, cellular and circuit functions in the brain. Injection of anatomical tracers, site-targeted lesions and gene delivery by recombinant adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses in mice are powerful tools to study nervous system development ...

c-Fos and Arc Immunohistochemistry on Rat Cerebellum

Author: Soyun Kim
Soyun KimAffiliation: Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
For correspondence: soyunkimucsd@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a45
date: 5/20/2012, 10594 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.191.

[Abstract] This protocol aims to introduce methods for sacrificing rats by transcardial perfusion and extracting the brain, and introduce methods for staining the rat brain tissue with c-Fos and Arc antibodies. Please note the expression of the proteins is very sensitive to behavioral paradigm that triggers neural ...

Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

Authors: Omar Akil
Omar AkilAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
For correspondence: oakil@ohns.ucsf.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a238
 and Lawrence R. Lustig
Lawrence R. LustigAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a239
date: 3/5/2013, 10578 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.332.

[Abstract] This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest ...

[Bio101] Microglia Cultures and Mixed Glial Culture

Author: Huiming Gao
Huiming GaoAffiliation: Neuropharmacology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
For correspondence: gao2@niehs.nih.gov
Bio-protocol author page: a17
date: 11/5/2011, 10532 views, 3 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.149.

[Abstract] Primary rodent microglia-enriched cultures are the most popular model to study microglial biology in vitro and to explore immune signaling pathways. Mixed glial cultures that contain microglia and astroglia are very useful for investigating the precise mechanisms of microglia-astroglia interaction during ...

Novel Object Recognition for Studying Memory in Mice

Authors: Tzyy-Nan Huang
Tzyy-Nan HuangAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
For correspondence: eugene02@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Bio-protocol author page: a1680
 and Yi-Ping Hsueh
Yi-Ping HsuehAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
For correspondence: yph@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Bio-protocol author page: a1681
date: 10/5/2014, 10057 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1249.

[Abstract] Memory tests are important indexes of the brain functions for rodents behavior assay. Many memory tasks require external forces (e.g. electric shocks) or intrinsic forces (e.g. hunger and thirsty) to trigger the responses. Under those conditions, rodents are under stresses, such as pain, tired, malnutrition ...

In utero Electroporation of Mouse Embryo Brains

Author: Xuecai Ge
Xuecai GeAffiliation 1: Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Affiliation 2: , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, USA
For correspondence: xuecaige@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a46
date: 7/20/2012, 9970 views, 1 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.231.

[Abstract] This is a non-invasive technique to introduce transgenes into developing brains. In this technique, DNA is injected into the lateral ventricle of the embryonic brains, and is incorporated into the cells through electroporation. Embryos then continue their development in normal conditions in vivo. The ...

A Protocol for Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) from Primary Neuron

Author: Jiali Li
Jiali LiAffiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Nelson Biological Laboratories, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
For correspondence: jli@dls.rutgers.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a179
date: 12/5/2012, 9877 views, 3 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.300.

[Abstract] The interaction of transcriptional or co-transcriptional factors with DNA is crucial for changes of neuronal gene expression during normal brain development as well as neurodegeneration. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is a very powerful technique for studying changes of neuronal gene ...

Optical Clearing Using SeeDB

Authors: Meng-Tsen Ke
Meng-Tsen KeAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a1144
Satoshi Fujimoto
Satoshi FujimotoAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a1145
 and Takeshi Imai
Takeshi ImaiAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
For correspondence: imai@cdb.riken.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a1146
date: 2/5/2014, 9299 views, 1 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1042.

[Abstract] We describe a water-based optical clearing agent, SeeDB (See Deep Brain), which clears fixed brain samples in a few days without quenching many types of fluorescent dyes, including fluorescent proteins and lipophilic neuronal tracers. SeeDB is a saturated solution of fructose (80.2% w/w) in water with ...

Hippocampal Neuron Dissociation Transfection and Culture in Microfluidics Chambers

Author: Yang Geng
Yang GengAffiliation: Department of Pediatrics and Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA
For correspondence: yanggeng@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a64
date: 7/20/2012, 7353 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.235.

[Abstract] Microfluidics chamber is an ideal tool to study local events that occurring in neuronal projections by perfectly compartmentalizing the cell soma from certain branches. It is very well suited for live cell imaging or immunohistochemistry staining. This protocol has been carefully modified in detail ...
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