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Cued Rat Gambling Task

Featured protocol,  Authors: Michael M. Barrus
Michael M. BarrusAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4033
 and Catharine A. Winstanley
Catharine A. WinstanleyAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
For correspondence: cwinstanley@psych.ubc.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4034
date: 2/5/2017, 124 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2118.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Jan 2016
The ability of salient cues to serve as powerful motivators has long been recognized in models of drug addiction, but little has been done to investigate their effects on complex decision making. The Cued rat Gambling Task (CrGT) is an operant behavioural task which pairs salient, audiovisual cues with the delivery of sucrose pellet rewards on complex schedules of reinforcement that involve both sugar pellet ‘wins’ and timeout penalty ‘losses’. The task was designed with the intention of providing insight into the influence of such cues on decision making in a manner that models human gambling.

Heterochronic Pellet Assay to Test Cell-cell Communication in the Mouse Retina

Featured protocol,  Authors: Nobuhiko Tachibana
Nobuhiko TachibanaAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4105
Dawn Zinyk
Dawn ZinykAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4106
Randy Ringuette
Randy RinguetteAffiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4107
Valerie Wallace
Valerie WallaceAffiliation 1: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Affiliation 2: Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
For correspondence: vwallace@uhnresearch.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4108
 and Carol Schuurmans
Carol SchuurmansAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
For correspondence: cschuurm@sri.utoronto.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4109
date: 2/5/2017, 141 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2117.

Brief version appeared in J Neurosci, Sep 2016
All seven retinal cell types that make up the mature retina are generated from a common, multipotent pool of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) (Wallace, 2011). One way that RPCs know when sufficient numbers of particular cell-types have been generated is through negative feedback signals, which are emitted by differentiated cells and must reach threshold levels to block additional differentiation of that cell type. A key assay to assess whether negative feedback signals are emitted by differentiated cells is a heterochronic pellet assay in which early stage RPCs are dissociated and labeled with BrdU, then mixed with a 20-fold excess of dissociated differentiated cells. The combined cells are then re-aggregated and cultured as a pellet on a membrane for 7-10 days in vitro. During this time frame, RPCs will differentiate, and the fate of the BrdU+ RPCs can be assessed using cell type-specific markers. Investigators who developed this pellet assay initially demonstrated that neonatal RPCs give rise to rods on an accelerated schedule compared to embryonic RPCs when the two cell types are mixed together (Watanabe and Raff, 1990; Watanabe et al., 1997). We have used this assay to demonstrate that sonic hedgehog (Shh), which we found acts as a negative regulator of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation, promotes RPC proliferation (Jensen and Wallace, 1997; Ringuette et al., 2014). More recently we modified the heterochronic pellet assay to assess the role of feedback signals for retinal amacrine cells, identifying transforming growth factor β2 (Tgfβ2) as a negative feedback signal, and Pten as a modulator of the Tgfβ2 response (Ma et al., 2007; Tachibana et al., 2016). This assay can be adapted to other lineages and tissues to assess cell-cell interactions between two different cell-types (heterotypic) in either an isochronic or heterochronic manner.

Cued Rat Gambling Task

Authors: Michael M. Barrus
Michael M. BarrusAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4033
 and Catharine A. Winstanley
Catharine A. WinstanleyAffiliation: Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
For correspondence: cwinstanley@psych.ubc.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4034
date: 2/5/2017, 124 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2118.

[Abstract] The ability of salient cues to serve as powerful motivators has long been recognized in models of drug addiction, but little has been done to investigate their effects on complex decision making. The Cued rat Gambling Task (CrGT) is an operant behavioural task which pairs salient, audiovisual cues with the delivery of sucrose pellet rewards on complex ...

Heterochronic Pellet Assay to Test Cell-cell Communication in the Mouse Retina

Authors: Nobuhiko Tachibana
Nobuhiko TachibanaAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4105
Dawn Zinyk
Dawn ZinykAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4106
Randy Ringuette
Randy RinguetteAffiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a4107
Valerie Wallace
Valerie WallaceAffiliation 1: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Affiliation 2: Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
For correspondence: vwallace@uhnresearch.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4108
 and Carol Schuurmans
Carol SchuurmansAffiliation 1: Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
For correspondence: cschuurm@sri.utoronto.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a4109
date: 2/5/2017, 141 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2117.

[Abstract] All seven retinal cell types that make up the mature retina are generated from a common, multipotent pool of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) (Wallace, 2011). One way that RPCs know when sufficient numbers of particular cell-types have been generated is through negative feedback signals, which are emitted by differentiated cells and must reach threshold ...

An Acute Mouse Spinal Cord Slice Preparation for Studying Glial Activation ex vivo

Authors: Juan Mauricio Garré
Juan Mauricio GarréAffiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care and Pain Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
For correspondence: Juan.GarreCastro@nyumc.org
Bio-protocol author page: a3981
Guang Yang
Guang YangAffiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care and Pain Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3982
Feliksas F. Bukauskas
Feliksas F. BukauskasAffiliation 1: Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
Bio-protocol author page: a3983
 and Michael V. L. Bennett
Michael V. L. BennettAffiliation: Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3985
date: 1/20/2017, 233 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2102.

[Abstract] Pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and chronic pain are characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia in spinal cord and have been modeled in rodents. In vivo imaging at cellular level in these animal models is limited due to the spinal cord’s highly myelinated funiculi. The preparation of acute ...

Primary Culture of Mouse Neurons from the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

Authors: De-Li Cao
De-Li CaoAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3992
Peng-Bo Jing
Peng-Bo JingAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3742
Bao-Chun Jiang
Bao-Chun JiangAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3994
 and Yong-Jing Gao
Yong-Jing GaoAffiliation 1: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Affiliation 2: Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
For correspondence: gaoyongjing@hotmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3743
date: 1/5/2017, 275 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2098.

[Abstract] Primary afferents of sensory neurons mainly terminate in the spinal cord dorsal horn, which has an important role in the integration and modulation of sensory-related signals. Primary culture of mouse spinal dorsal horn neuron (SDHN) is useful for studying signal transmission from peripheral nervous system to the brain, as well as for developing cellular ...

Optogenetic Mapping of Synaptic Connections in Mouse Brain Slices to Define the Functional Connectome of Identified Neuronal Populations

Authors: Susana Mingote
Susana MingoteAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3960
Nao Chuhma
Nao ChuhmaAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3961
 and Stephen Rayport
Stephen RayportAffiliation 1: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Molecular Therapeutics, NYS Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
For correspondence: stephen.rayport@columbia.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3962
date: 1/5/2017, 257 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2090.

[Abstract] Functional connectivity in a neural circuit is determined by the strength, incidence, and neurotransmitter nature of its connections (Chuhma, 2015). Using optogenetics the functional synaptic connections between an identified population of neurons and defined postsynaptic target neurons may be measured systematically in order to determine the functional ...

MPM-2 Mediated Immunoprecipitation of Proteins Undergoing Proline-directed Phosphorylation

Authors: Roberta Antonelli
Roberta AntonelliAffiliation 1: International School for Advanced Studies, Neurobiology Department, Trieste, Italy
Affiliation 2: Laboratory of Translational Research in Child and Adolescent Cancer, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR)-UAB, Barcelona, Spain
For correspondence: roberta.antonelli@vhir.org
Bio-protocol author page: a3828
 and Paola Zacchi
Paola ZacchiAffiliation: International School for Advanced Studies, Neurobiology Department, Trieste, Italy
Bio-protocol author page: a3829
date: 12/5/2016, 358 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2046.

[Abstract] Immunoprecipitation (IP) represents a widely utilized biochemical method to isolate a specific protein from a complex mixture taking advantage of an antibody that specifically recognizes that particular target molecule. This procedure is extremely versatile and can be applied to concentrate a specific protein, to identify interacting partners in complex ...

Delayed Spatial Win-shift Test on Radial Arm Maze

Authors: Simone N. De Luca
Simone N. De LucaAffiliation: School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3841
Luba Sominsky
Luba Sominsky Affiliation: School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3842
 and Sarah J. Spencer
Sarah J. SpencerAffiliation: School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
For correspondence: Sarah.Spencer@rmit.edu.au
Bio-protocol author page: a3843
date: 12/5/2016, 402 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2053.

[Abstract] The radial arm maze (RAM) is used to assess reference and working memory in rodents. This task relies on the rodent’s ability to orientate itself in the maze using extra-maze visual cues. This test can be used to investigate whether a rodent’s cognition is improved or impaired under a variety of experimental conditions. Here, we describe one way to ...

Various Modes of Spinal Cord Injury to Study Regeneration in Adult Zebrafish

Authors: Subhra Prakash Hui
Subhra Prakash HuiAffiliation 1: Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
Affiliation 2: Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Lowy Packer Building, Darlinghurst, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3817
 and Sukla Ghosh
Sukla GhoshAffiliation: Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
For correspondence: suklagh2010@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3818
date: 12/5/2016, 450 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2043.

[Abstract] Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to failure of both sensory and motor functions, due to lack of axonal regrowth below the level of injury as well as inability to replace lost neural cells and to stimulate neurogenesis. In contrast, fish and amphibians are capable of regenerating a variety of their organs like limb/fin, jaw, heart and various ...

Microinjection of Virus into Lumbar Enlargement of Spinal Dorsal Horn in Mice

Authors: Zhi-Jun Zhang*
Zhi-Jun ZhangAffiliation 1: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Affiliation 2: Department of Human Anatomy, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3741
Peng-Bo Jing*
Peng-Bo JingAffiliation: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3742
 and Yong-Jing Gao
Yong-Jing GaoAffiliation 1: Institute of Nautical Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
Affiliation 2: Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
For correspondence: gaoyongjing@hotmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3743
 (*contributed equally to this work) date: 11/20/2016, 463 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2020.

[Abstract] In order to explore the role of a specific gene/protein in the specific segment of spinal cord, the technique of intraspinal injection is particularly used to deliver viral vectors targeting the specific gene/protein. These viral vectors can knockdown or overexpress the specific gene/protein in specific cells (glial cells or neurons). In this protocol, ...

An in vitro Model of Neuron-macrophage Interaction to Generate Macrophages with Neurite Outgrowth Properties

Authors: Hyeok Jun Yun
Hyeok Jun YunAffiliation 1: Department of Brain Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
Affiliation 2: BK21 PLUS Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
Bio-protocol author page: a3721
 and Byung S. Kim
Byung S. KimAffiliation 1: Department of Brain Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
Affiliation 2: BK21 PLUS Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
Affiliation 3: Department of Neurology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
For correspondence: kimbg@ajou.ac.kr
Bio-protocol author page: a1956
date: 11/20/2016, 471 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2012.

[Abstract] Macrophages are known to play beneficial roles in axon regeneration after nerve injury. To develop an in vitro model in which injury signals can elicit pro-regenerative macrophage activation, we established co-cultures consisting of adult dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons and peritoneal macrophages and added cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP. The conditioned ...
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Stereotaxic Injection of LPS into Mouse Substantia Nigra

Author: Huiming Gao
Huiming GaoAffiliation: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
For correspondence: gao2@niehs.nih.gov
Bio-protocol author page: a17
date: 4/20/2012, 10926 views, 4 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.153.

[Abstract] Stereotaxic injection is an attractive approach for studying genetic, cellular and circuit functions in the brain. Injection of anatomical tracers, site-targeted lesions and gene delivery by recombinant adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses in mice are powerful tools to study nervous system development ...

Immunofluorescence Staining on Mouse Embryonic Brain Sections

Author: Xuecai Ge
Xuecai GeAffiliation 1: Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Affiliation 2: , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, USA
For correspondence: xuecaige@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a46
date: 6/5/2012, 10923 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.192.

[Abstract] This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse embryonic brains, starting from tissue preparation to mounting of the tissue sections....

c-Fos and Arc Immunohistochemistry on Rat Cerebellum

Author: Soyun Kim
Soyun KimAffiliation: Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
For correspondence: soyunkimucsd@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a45
date: 5/20/2012, 10412 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.191.

[Abstract] This protocol aims to introduce methods for sacrificing rats by transcardial perfusion and extracting the brain, and introduce methods for staining the rat brain tissue with c-Fos and Arc antibodies. Please note the expression of the proteins is very sensitive to behavioral paradigm that triggers neural ...

[Bio101] Microglia Cultures and Mixed Glial Culture

Author: Huiming Gao
Huiming GaoAffiliation: Neuropharmacology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
For correspondence: gao2@niehs.nih.gov
Bio-protocol author page: a17
date: 11/5/2011, 10318 views, 3 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.149.

[Abstract] Primary rodent microglia-enriched cultures are the most popular model to study microglial biology in vitro and to explore immune signaling pathways. Mixed glial cultures that contain microglia and astroglia are very useful for investigating the precise mechanisms of microglia-astroglia interaction during ...

Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

Authors: Omar Akil
Omar AkilAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
For correspondence: oakil@ohns.ucsf.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a238
 and Lawrence R. Lustig
Lawrence R. LustigAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a239
date: 3/5/2013, 10296 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.332.

[Abstract] This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest ...

In utero Electroporation of Mouse Embryo Brains

Author: Xuecai Ge
Xuecai GeAffiliation 1: Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Affiliation 2: , Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, USA
For correspondence: xuecaige@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a46
date: 7/20/2012, 9746 views, 1 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.231.

[Abstract] This is a non-invasive technique to introduce transgenes into developing brains. In this technique, DNA is injected into the lateral ventricle of the embryonic brains, and is incorporated into the cells through electroporation. Embryos then continue their development in normal conditions in vivo. The ...

A Protocol for Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) from Primary Neuron

Author: Jiali Li
Jiali LiAffiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Nelson Biological Laboratories, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA
For correspondence: jli@dls.rutgers.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a179
date: 12/5/2012, 9616 views, 3 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.300.

[Abstract] The interaction of transcriptional or co-transcriptional factors with DNA is crucial for changes of neuronal gene expression during normal brain development as well as neurodegeneration. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is a very powerful technique for studying changes of neuronal gene ...

Novel Object Recognition for Studying Memory in Mice

Authors: Tzyy-Nan Huang
Tzyy-Nan HuangAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
For correspondence: eugene02@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Bio-protocol author page: a1680
 and Yi-Ping Hsueh
Yi-Ping HsuehAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
For correspondence: yph@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Bio-protocol author page: a1681
date: 10/5/2014, 9610 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1249.

[Abstract] Memory tests are important indexes of the brain functions for rodents behavior assay. Many memory tasks require external forces (e.g. electric shocks) or intrinsic forces (e.g. hunger and thirsty) to trigger the responses. Under those conditions, rodents are under stresses, such as pain, tired, malnutrition ...

Optical Clearing Using SeeDB

Authors: Meng-Tsen Ke
Meng-Tsen KeAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a1144
Satoshi Fujimoto
Satoshi FujimotoAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
Bio-protocol author page: a1145
 and Takeshi Imai
Takeshi ImaiAffiliation: Laboratory for Sensory Circuit Formation, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
For correspondence: imai@cdb.riken.jp
Bio-protocol author page: a1146
date: 2/5/2014, 9044 views, 1 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1042.

[Abstract] We describe a water-based optical clearing agent, SeeDB (See Deep Brain), which clears fixed brain samples in a few days without quenching many types of fluorescent dyes, including fluorescent proteins and lipophilic neuronal tracers. SeeDB is a saturated solution of fructose (80.2% w/w) in water with ...

Hippocampal Neuron Dissociation Transfection and Culture in Microfluidics Chambers

Author: Yang Geng
Yang GengAffiliation: Department of Pediatrics and Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA
For correspondence: yanggeng@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a64
date: 7/20/2012, 7188 views, 0 Q&A
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.235.

[Abstract] Microfluidics chamber is an ideal tool to study local events that occurring in neuronal projections by perfectly compartmentalizing the cell soma from certain branches. It is very well suited for live cell imaging or immunohistochemistry staining. This protocol has been carefully modified in detail ...
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