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Developmental Biology

Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate in Caenorhabditis elegans

Featured protocol,  Authors: Konstantinos Palikaras
Konstantinos PalikarasAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Bio-protocol author page: a3832
 and Nektarios Tavernarakis
Nektarios TavernarakisAffiliation: Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
For correspondence: tavernarakis@imbb.forth.gr
Bio-protocol author page: a3833
date: 12/5/2016, 44 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2049.

Brief version appeared in Nature, May 2015
The rate of oxygen consumption is a vital marker indicating cellular function during lifetime under normal or metabolically challenged conditions. It is used broadly to study mitochondrial function (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Palikaras et al., 2015; Ryu et al., 2016) or investigate factors mediating the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Chen et al., 2015; Vander Heiden et al., 2009). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Intracellular Assessment of ATP Levels in Caenorhabditis elegans

Featured protocol,  Authors: Konstantinos Palikaras
Konstantinos PalikarasAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Bio-protocol author page: a3832
 and Nektarios Tavernarakis
Nektarios TavernarakisAffiliation 1: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Affiliation 2: Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
For correspondence: tavernarakis@imbb.forth.gr
Bio-protocol author page: a3833
date: 12/5/2016, 29 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2048.

Brief version appeared in Nature, May 2015
Eukaryotic cells heavily depend on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within mitochondria. ATP is the major energy currency molecule, which fuels cell to carry out numerous processes, including growth, differentiation, transportation and cell death among others (Khakh and Burnstock, 2009). Therefore, ATP levels can serve as a metabolic gauge for cellular homeostasis and survival (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Gomes et al., 2011; Palikaras et al., 2015). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of intracellular ATP levels using a bioluminescence approach in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Isolation and Culture from Mouse Aorta

Featured protocol,  Authors: Callie S. Kwartler
Callie S. KwartlerAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3821
Ping Zhou
Ping ZhouAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3822
Shao-Qing Kuang
Shao-Qing KuangAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3823
Xue-Yan Duan
Xue-Yan DuanAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3824
Limin Gong
Limin GongAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3825
 and Dianna M. Milewicz
Dianna M. MilewiczAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
For correspondence: Dianna.M.Milewicz@uth.tmc.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3827
date: 12/5/2016, 29 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2045.

Brief version appeared in J Clin Invest, Mar 2016
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the ascending thoracic aorta arise from neural crest cells, whereas SMCs in the descending aorta are derived from the presomitic mesoderm. SMCs play important roles in cardiovascular development and aortic aneurysm formation. This protocol describes the detailed process for explanting ascending and descending SMCs from mouse aortic tissue. Conditions for maintenance and subculture of isolated SMCs and characterization of the vascular SMC phenotype are also described.

Visualising Differential Growth of Arabidopsis Epidermal Pavement Cells Using Thin Plate Spline Analysis

Featured protocol,  Authors: William Jonathan Armour
William Jonathan ArmourAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
For correspondence: armour.william@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3748
Deborah Anne Barton
Deborah Anne BartonAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3749
 and Robyn Lynette Overall
Robyn Lynette OverallAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3750
date: 11/20/2016, 181 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2022.

Brief version appeared in Plant Cell, Sep 2015
Epidermal pavement cells in Arabidopsis leaves and cotyledons develop from relatively simple shapes to form complex cells that have multiple undulations of varying sizes. Analyzing the growth of individual parts of the cell wall boundaries over time is essential to understanding how pavement cells develop their complex shapes. Thin plate spline analysis is a method for visualizing the change of size and shape of objects through warping or deformation of a regular mesh and can be applied to understand cell wall growth. This protocol describes the application of thin plate spline analysis to visualize the development of individual pavement cells over time.

Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate in Caenorhabditis elegans

Authors: Konstantinos Palikaras
Konstantinos PalikarasAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Bio-protocol author page: a3832
 and Nektarios Tavernarakis
Nektarios TavernarakisAffiliation: Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
For correspondence: tavernarakis@imbb.forth.gr
Bio-protocol author page: a3833
date: 12/5/2016, 44 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2049.

[Abstract] The rate of oxygen consumption is a vital marker indicating cellular function during lifetime under normal or metabolically challenged conditions. It is used broadly to study mitochondrial function (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Palikaras et al., 2015; Ryu et al., 2016) or investigate factors mediating the switch from oxidative phosphorylation ...

Intracellular Assessment of ATP Levels in Caenorhabditis elegans

Authors: Konstantinos Palikaras
Konstantinos PalikarasAffiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Bio-protocol author page: a3832
 and Nektarios Tavernarakis
Nektarios TavernarakisAffiliation 1: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, Greece
Affiliation 2: Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
For correspondence: tavernarakis@imbb.forth.gr
Bio-protocol author page: a3833
date: 12/5/2016, 29 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2048.

[Abstract] Eukaryotic cells heavily depend on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within mitochondria. ATP is the major energy currency molecule, which fuels cell to carry out numerous processes, including growth, differentiation, transportation and cell death among others (Khakh and Burnstock, 2009). Therefore, ATP levels ...

Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Isolation and Culture from Mouse Aorta

Authors: Callie S. Kwartler
Callie S. KwartlerAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3821
Ping Zhou
Ping ZhouAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3822
Shao-Qing Kuang
Shao-Qing KuangAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3823
Xue-Yan Duan
Xue-Yan DuanAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3824
Limin Gong
Limin GongAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3825
 and Dianna M. Milewicz
Dianna M. MilewiczAffiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA
For correspondence: Dianna.M.Milewicz@uth.tmc.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3827
date: 12/5/2016, 29 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2045.

[Abstract] Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the ascending thoracic aorta arise from neural crest cells, whereas SMCs in the descending aorta are derived from the presomitic mesoderm. SMCs play important roles in cardiovascular development and aortic aneurysm formation. This protocol describes the detailed process for explanting ascending and descending SMCs ...

Visualising Differential Growth of Arabidopsis Epidermal Pavement Cells Using Thin Plate Spline Analysis

Authors: William Jonathan Armour
William Jonathan ArmourAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
For correspondence: armour.william@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3748
Deborah Anne Barton
Deborah Anne BartonAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3749
 and Robyn Lynette Overall
Robyn Lynette OverallAffiliation: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Bio-protocol author page: a3750
date: 11/20/2016, 181 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.2022.

[Abstract] Epidermal pavement cells in Arabidopsis leaves and cotyledons develop from relatively simple shapes to form complex cells that have multiple undulations of varying sizes. Analyzing the growth of individual parts of the cell wall boundaries over time is essential to understanding how pavement cells develop their complex shapes. Thin plate spline analysis ...

Isolation, Culture, and Staining of Single Myofibers

Authors: Yann Simon Gallot
Yann Simon GallotAffiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3535
Sajedah M. Hindi
Sajedah M. HindiAffiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3536
Aman K. Mann
Aman K. MannAffiliation: duPont Manual High Schoo, Louisville, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a3538
 and Ashok Kumar
Ashok KumarAffiliation: Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, USA
For correspondence: ashok.kumar@louisville.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3537
date: 10/5/2016, 322 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1942.

[Abstract] Adult skeletal muscle regeneration is orchestrated by a specialized population of adult stem cells called satellite cells, which are localized between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. The process of satellite cell-activation, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation that occurs during muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ...

Analysis of Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration Using Heterotopic Grafts of Embryonic Guts

Authors: Rodolphe Soret
Rodolphe SoretAffiliation: Molecular Genetics of Development Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences; BioMed Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, PQ, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a3490
 and Nicolas Pilon
Nicolas PilonAffiliation: Molecular Genetics of Development Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences; BioMed Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, PQ, Canada
For correspondence: pilon.nicolas@uqam.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a3491
date: 9/5/2016, 316 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1924.

[Abstract] Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), also named aganglionic megacolon, is a severe congenital malformation characterized by a lack of enteric nervous system (ENS) in the terminal regions of the bowel (Bergeron et al., 2013). As the ENS notably regulates motility in the whole gastrointestinal track, the segment without neurons remains tonically contracted, ...

Olfactory Bulb (OB) Transplants

Authors: Maria Savvaki
Maria SavvakiAffiliation: Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology-FoRTH, Vassilika Vouton, Heraklion, Greece
For correspondence: msavaki@imbb.forth.gr
Bio-protocol author page: a3483
 and Domna Karagogeos
Domna KaragogeosAffiliation: Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology-FoRTH, Vassilika Vouton, Heraklion, Greece
Bio-protocol author page: a3484
date: 9/5/2016, 327 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1921.

[Abstract] Transplantation in mouse brain slices is a powerful tool in order to study axon targeting and migrational events during development. Taking advantage of donors and recipients belonging to different genotypes, this technique allows researchers to assess the contribution of donor and/or recipient tissue by performing various combinations and to study ...

Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors

Authors: Anthony Flamier
Anthony FlamierAffiliation 1: Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Neurosciences, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a3320
Andrea Barabino
Andrea BarabinoAffiliation 1: Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Neurosciences, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Bio-protocol author page: a3321
 and Gilbert Bernier
Gilbert BernierAffiliation 1: Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 2: Department of Neurosciences, Montreal, Canada
Affiliation 3: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
For correspondence: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Bio-protocol author page: a3322
date: 7/20/2016, 421 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1870.

[Abstract] Photoreceptors are specialized retinal neurons able to respond to light in order to generate visual information. Among photoreceptors, cones are involved in colors discrimination and high-resolution central vision and are selectively depleted in macular degenerations and cone dystrophies. A possible therapeutic solution for these disorders is to replace ...

Aorta Ring Assay

Authors: Jing Jin
Jing JinAffiliation 1: Second Affiliated hospital Zhejiang University college of Medicine of clinic research center, Hangzhou, China
Affiliation 2: Cardiovascular key laboratory of Zhejiang province, Hangzhou, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3272
Xinyang Hu
Xinyang HuAffiliation 1: Second Affiliated hospital Zhejiang University college of Medicine of clinic research center, Hangzhou, China
Affiliation 2: Second Affiliated hospital Zhejiang University college of Medicine of Department of science and education, Hangzhou, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3273
Ling Zhang
Ling ZhangAffiliation: Cardiovascular key laboratory of Zhejiang province, Hangzhou, China
Bio-protocol author page: a3367
 and Jian'an Wang
Jian'an WangAffiliation 1: Second Affiliated hospital Zhejiang University college of Medicine of clinic research center, Hangzhou, China
Affiliation 2: Cardiovascular key laboratory of Zhejiang province, Hangzhou, China
For correspondence: jian_an_wang@yahoo.com
Bio-protocol author page: a3368
date: 7/5/2016, 480 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1856.

[Abstract] Angiogenesis is the nature and the pathological process of blood vessels growth from pre-existing vascular bud. It plays an important role in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Aorta Ring Assay is an approach of Angiogenesis. In this experiment, we use the aorta of rat as material, clean surrounding tissue of aorta and cut it into 1 mm long ring. And ...

Preparation and Immunofluorescence Staining of the Trachea in Drosophila Larvae and Pupae

Author: Feng Chen
Feng ChenAffiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA
For correspondence: fchen66@alumni.stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a3101
date: 5/5/2016, 1102 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.1797.

[Abstract] The Drosophila melanogaster trachea is a branched network of rigid chitin-lined tubes that ramify throughout the body and functions as the fly’s respiratory organ. Small openings at the ends of the tracheal tubes allow gas exchange to occur by diffusion between internal tissues and the exterior environment. Tracheal tubes are lined by a single layer ...
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[Bio101] In vivo BrdU Incorporation and Detection in Mouse

Author: Zheng Liu
Zheng LiuAffiliation: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, USA
For correspondence: zl2119@caa.columbia.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a12
Anne Davidson Lab, date: 6/5/2011, 18256 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.81.

[Abstract] BrdU (Bromodeoxyuridine or 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine) is a synthetic nucleoside that is incorporated into DNA by proliferating cells. This protocol is to be used to incorporate and detect BrdU in murine plasma cells. The plasma cells described in this protocol are formed spontaneously in autoimmune mice ...

Alcian Blue – Alizarin Red Staining of Mouse Skeleton

Author: Peichuan Zhang
Peichuan ZhangAffiliation 1: Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Affiliation 2: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
For correspondence: peichuan.zhang@ucsf.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a11
date: 4/20/2012, 14791 views, 9 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.162.

[Abstract] Our lab has used the Alcian blue – Alizarin red staining method with certain modifications to characterize skeleton deformities in mice lacking Pek/Perk, encoding a translational control eIF2alpha kinase....

[Bio101] Lifespan Assay

Author: Fanglian He date: 4/5/2011, 13162 views, 3 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.57.

[Abstract] This assay is used to address aging-related questions in worms....

[Bio101] Making Males of C. elegans

Author: Fanglian He date: 4/20/2011, 12249 views, 2 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.58.

[Abstract] Getting males from a hermaphrodite population. This is a modified version of protocol originally written by Michael Koelle at Yale University....

c-Fos and Arc Immunohistochemistry on Rat Cerebellum

Author: Soyun Kim
Soyun KimAffiliation: Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
For correspondence: soyunkimucsd@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a45
date: 5/20/2012, 9977 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.191.

[Abstract] This protocol aims to introduce methods for sacrificing rats by transcardial perfusion and extracting the brain, and introduce methods for staining the rat brain tissue with c-Fos and Arc antibodies. Please note the expression of the proteins is very sensitive to behavioral paradigm that triggers neural ...

Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

Authors: Omar Akil
Omar AkilAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
For correspondence: oakil@ohns.ucsf.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a238
 and Lawrence R. Lustig
Lawrence R. LustigAffiliation: Department Of Otolaryngology-HNS, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a239
date: 3/5/2013, 9578 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.332.

[Abstract] This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest ...

Phalloidin Staining and Immunohistochemistry of Zebrafish Embryos

Authors: Michelle F. Goody
Michelle F. Goody Affiliation: Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, USA
Bio-protocol author page: a619
 and Clarissa A. Henry
Clarissa A. HenryAffiliation: School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, USA
For correspondence: clarissa.henry@umit.maine.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a620
date: 6/5/2013, 8764 views, 1 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.786.

[Abstract] Fluorescent conjugated Phalloidin is a stain that allows for visualization of F-actin. In immunohistochemistry, primary antibodies and fluorescent conjugated secondary antibodies can be used to visualize subcellular localization and relative amounts of proteins of interest. Here is a protocol for Phalloidin ...

[Bio101] Cell Culture Transfection for Production and Purification of Wnt Ligands

Author: Lili Jing
Lili JingAffiliation: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
For correspondence: lilijingcn@gmail.com
Bio-protocol author page: a38
date: 1/20/2012, 8623 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.176.

[Abstract] Wnt ligand proteins are extremely difficult to purify and enrich in vitro. This protocol uses Wnt11r protein as an example to illustrate how to use 293T cells to produce secreted Wnt11r and collect it in vitro for further biochemical experiments....

[Bio101] Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance for Differentiation

Author: Hogune Im
Hogune ImAffiliation: Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Program, Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical Schoo, Madison, USA
For correspondence: hoguneim@stanford.edu
Bio-protocol author page: a18
date: 10/20/2011, 7768 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.145.

[Abstract] Embryonic stem cells are derived from inner cell mass of an embryo that can differentiate into every cell type in the body. Clinically, cultured red blood cell supply is of great interest. However, some of the hurdles need to be overcome. This protocol describes a protocol to maintain mouse stem cells ...

[Bio101] Culturing of C57BL/6 Mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) Cell Line

Author: Yuqiong Pan date: 10/5/2011, 7597 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.142.

[Abstract] Using ATCC ES C57BL/6 as an example, it is shown here how to culture mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line. The clonal embryonic stem cell line #693 ES C57BL/6 was derived from a strain C57BL/6J (B6) mouse blastocyst [PubMed: 11730008]. The ES cells were shown to populate the germ line of two host blastocyst ...
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