The ZnT8, 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and protein tyrosine phosphatase related islet antigen 2 (IA2) AAb status was determined using ELISA kits (KRONUS, Idaho, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Based on the manufacturer’s guidelines, participants with ZnT8 and IA2 AAb concentrations ≥ 15 U/ml, and GAD65 AAb concentrations ≥ 5 IU/ml were classified as positive.

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