Spikes were sorted and identified in Offline Sorter V4 software (Plexon). The separation of different units was performed by principal component analysis. A unit was classified as a single unit if <0.75% of the interspike intervals were <1 ms, as in previous studies [23, 31]. This resulted in unimodal firing rate distributions. The data 2 s before and 6 s after each odor stimulation event were extracted, and the mean firing rate (MFR) was generated by averaging the firing rate in 50-ms bins (Fig. (Fig.2B4).2B4). The spontaneous firing rate was calculated by averaging across the spikes fired during the 2 s before odor stimulation and the odor-evoked firing rate was calculated by averaging across the spikes fired during the 2 s after the onset of odor stimulation. To test for odor-evoked responses, we compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) for the baseline firing rate with that for the odor-evoked firing rate across all trials for each cell–odor pair (Fig. (Fig.2C4).2C4). See below for details of the ROC and auROC calculations.

Odor-evoked Ca2+ signals, LFPs, and spikes in M/Ts. A1A4 Heat maps (upper panels, 20 trials, each row represents a single trial) and trial-averaged traces (lower panels) for the M/T fiber photometry Ca2+ signal, power in the beta and high-gamma LFP bands, and mean spike firing rate (MFR) evoked by one of 8 odors in a representative mouse (Ca, calcium; HG, high gamma). B1B4 auROC (brown lines) for ΔF/F, normalized power in the beta and gamma bands, and MFR (green lines, response duration; green dots, onset and peak latencies; black/gray lines, trial-averaged traces from one mouse/cell–odor pair). C1C4 Proportions of mouse/cell–odor pairs producing an excitatory (red), inhibitory (blue), or no (gray) response in the Ca2+ and electrophysiological signals (n = 88 mouse–odor pairs from 11 mice for Ca2+ signals and for beta and high-gamma oscillations, and n = 600 cell–odor pairs from 11 mice for spikes).

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