The following databases were used to search for relevant keywords: PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 20, 2018 (Table (Table1).1). Two independent investigators (XY and DD) screened titles, keywords, and abstracts for relevant indicators and abbreviated adherence to inclusion/exclusion criteria. If a publication cited other relevant titles not already identified by the initial search strategy, effort was made to track down and screen those titles. A second, full-text screening of all qualifying entries was subsequently performed according the criteria listed below. Effort was taken during screening to identify and mitigate potential sources of publication bias such as the independent assessment of a randomized controlled trial based on methodology rather than claim or title and the inclusion of qualifying cardiac populations included in larger intensive care unit studies, where the cardiac population could be extracted from the data set. However, factors inherent to randomized trials such as the bias of publication of positive findings as well as our exclusion of studies published in non-English languages should be considered.

Electronic search strategy in different databases.

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