We used our electronic medical record and old files to track the crude mortality rate, which is a measure of the number of deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time) in this dialysis population group. Demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory and diagnostic data were also collected for each patient.

The following were the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics: age, sex, ethnic groups, nutritional status (albumin level), and dialysis adequacy (single pool Kt/v for HD patients and weekly Kt/v for PD patients). The type of vascular access, time since starting dialysis, and comorbidities (presence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, malignancy, infections, and hepatitis virology status) were determined. Medications (statins, phosphate binders, anticoagulants, and antihypertensive medications) were also reviewed and recorded as well as information on dialysis modality switches, renal transplantation, withdrawals from dialysis, and deaths (on a monthly basis).

Nondemographic characteristics included laboratory and diagnostic investigations, such as complete blood count, parathyroid hormones (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, HBA1C, iron status, vitamin D level, serum albumin, electrolytes, and lipid profiles.

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