2.4. Statistical analysis
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Music-based interventions for pain relief in patients undergoing hemodialysis
Medicine (Baltimore), Jan 15, 2021; DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000024102

Data synthesis was carried out in STATA (release 12.0, College Station, TX). Synthesized results were aimed to compare the efficacy of music therapy on the mitigation of pain among patients receiving hemodialysis. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidential intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. The heterogeneity among selected studies was assessed using the I2, which was described previously.[20] A I2 value <25% was considered as low heterogeneity, and a fixed model would be applied; whereas, a random-effect model would be used. Egger's linear regression test and Begg's funnel plot were used to assess potential publication bias. P < .05 was recognized as statistically significant.

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