An ICG/iopamidol mixture was prepared as a VATS marker solution by diluting ICG (2.5 mg/mL, 10 mL; Daiichi-Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan) 100-fold with iopamidol (Iopamiron 370; Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany). A 1-mL syringe was filled with the ICG/iopamidol mixture and connected to either a 23-gauge CT-guided percutaneous needle or a 21-gauge bronchoscopic biopsy needle (NA-1C-1; Olympus America). The needle lumen was filled with the marking solution prior to the marking procedure.

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