Pure 3D perovskite precursor solution was prepared by dissolving a mixture of lead iodide (736.5 mg, 1.60 mmol), formamidinium iodide (237.3 mg, 1.38 mmol), methylammonium iodide (9.5 mg, 0.06 mmol), and cesium iodide (15.6 mg, 0.06 mmol) in 1 ml of mixed solution of DMF and DMSO [DMF (v):DMSO (v) = 4:1] under mild heating condition at ~70°C to assist dissolving. The perovskite active layer was deposited using an antisolvent method, with CB as the antisolvent. The perovskite precursor solution was deposited on the freshly prepared FTO/c-TiO2/m-TiO2 substrate, and a two-step spin-coating method was applied. The first step was carried out at 1000 rpm with an acceleration rate of 200 rpm/s for 10 s. The second step followed at 5000 rpm with an acceleration rate of 2000 rpm/s for 20 s. CB (200 μl) was applied at the 10th second. After spin coating, the substrate was allowed to anneal at 110°C for 40 min. The whole procedure was done in a nitrogen-filled glovebox.

Pure 2D perovskite film was casted from a precursor solution containing a mixture of lead iodide (461 mg, 1 mmol) and FEAI (678.1 mg, 2 mmol) in 1 ml of mixed solution of DMF and DMSO [DMF (v):DMSO (v) = 4:1] under mild heating condition at ~70°C to assist dissolving, and no antisolvent was applied during casting of the pure 2D perovskite. The same two-step spin-coating method as that used for 3D perovskite was applied, and the resulting pale yellow film was allowed to anneal at 110°C for 10 min to yield a bright yellow film. The whole procedure was performed in a nitrogen-filled glovebox.

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