An SEM (Hitachi SU-70) was used to characterize the morphologies of the samples. Compositional analysis of the cellulose membrane and original wood was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (Ultimate 3000; Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). The optical transmittance from 400 to 1100 nm was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (Lambda 35; PerkinElmer, USA) with an integrating sphere to collect all transmitted light. To determine the zeta potential of the original and TEMPO-oxidized white wood, the samples were dispersed in deionized water by ultrasonication treatment (100% amplitude, 10 min, Fisher Scientific FS 110D) to produce a 0.1 wt % (weight %) concentration. Zeta potential (ζ) of the dispersed suspension was measured using a Zetasizer Nano S90 (Malvern Instrument) without adjusting the ionic strength. The ζ value was calculated from the electrophoretic mobility using the Henry equation and Huckel approximation. The tensile strength of the wood was measured with a TA Q800 DMA system in controlled-force mode. The force increased from 1 up to 18 N at 0.01 N/min.

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