The independently ToCV- and TYLCV-infected tomato plants were obtained by inoculating non-infected tomato plants with 20 viruliferous male whiteflies that had all emerged within a 24-h period and were allowed to feed for 48-h on ToCV- and TYLCV-infected tomato plants, respectively. Whiteflies were transferred to tomato plants using a clip-on cage placed on the first true leaf and there was a 10-day inoculation access period. Using the same method, ToCV+TYLCV mixed infected tomato plants were obtained by inoculating control (non-infected) tomato plants simultaneously with 20 ToCV- and 20 TYLCV-viruliferous male whiteflies. Similarly, non-infected tomato plants (mock treatment) were obtained by allowing 20 non-viruliferous male whiteflies to feed on each plant for a comparable period of time. After inoculation, plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 27 ± 2°C under a 16-h: 8-h light:dark photoperiod. Plants from each of four treatment groups (non-infected, ToCV-infected, TYLCV-infected, and ToCV+TYLCV mixed infected tomato plants) were used in all the experiments.

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