细胞生物学


现刊
往期刊物
0 Q&A 1111 Views Oct 5, 2022

Loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 10 gene (LRP10) have been recently implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, despite the genetic evidence, little is known about the LRP10 protein function in health and disease. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to efficiently generate a LRP10 LoF model in two independent LRP10-expressing cell lines, HuTu-80 and HEK 293T, using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing tool. Our method efficiently generates bi-allelic LRP10 knockout (KO), which can be further utilized to elucidate the physiological LRP10 protein function and to model some aspects of neurodegenerative disorders.


Graphical abstract:



CRISPR/Cas9 workflow for the generation of the LRP10 KO.

(1) Designed single guide RNA (sgRNA) is cloned into CRISPR/Cas9 px458 plasmid. (2) Cells are transfected with the CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid containing sgRNA. (3) Two days post transfection, cells are dissociated and sorted as single cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). (4) After several weeks, expanded clonal lines are (5) verified with Sanger sequencing for the presence of INDELs (insertions or deletions), RT-qPCR for the amounts of LRP10 mRNA transcript, and Western blotting for the analysis of the LRP10 protein levels.


0 Q&A 771 Views Sep 5, 2022

Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are an immunoregulatory CD4+ Foxp3- IL-10high T cell subset with therapeutic potential for various inflammatory diseases. Retroviral (RV) transduction has been a valuable tool in defining the signaling pathways and transcription factors that regulate Tr1 differentiation and suppressive function. This protocol describes a method for RV transduction of naïve CD4+ T cells differentiating under Tr1 conditions, without the use of reagents such as polybrene or RetroNectin. A major advantage of this protocol over others is that it allows for the role of genes of interest on both differentiation and function of Tr1 cells to be interrogated. This is due to the high efficiency of RV transduction combined with the use of an IL10GFP/Foxp3RFP dual reporter mouse model, which enables successfully transduced Tr1 cells to be identified and sorted for functional assays. In addition, this protocol may be utilized for dual/multiple transduction approaches and transduction of other lymphocyte populations, such as CD8+ T cells.

0 Q&A 1558 Views Aug 20, 2022

Currently, there are several in vitro protocols that focus on directing human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation into either the cardiac or pulmonary lineage. However, these systemsprotocols are unable to recapitulate the critical exchange of signals and cells between the heart and lungs during early development. To address this gap, here we describe a protocol to co-differentiate cardiac and pulmonary progenitors within a single hiPSC culture by temporal specific modulation of Wnt and Nodal signaling. Subsequently, human cardio-pulmonary micro-tissues (μTs) can be generated by culturing the co-induced cardiac and pulmonary progenitors in 3D suspension culture. Anticipated results include expedited alveolarization in the presence of cardiac cells, and segregation of the cardiac and pulmonary μTs in the absence of exogenous Wnt signaling. This protocol can be used to model cardiac and pulmonary co-development, with potential applications in drug testing, and as a platform for expediting the maturation of pulmonary cells for lung tissue engineering.

0 Q&A 991 Views Aug 5, 2022

There is an urgent need for the development of brain drug delivery carriers based on middle-sized or macromolecules, to which in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are expected to contribute significantly through evaluation of BBB permeability. As part of efforts to develop such models, we have been working on human conditionally immortalized cell-based multicellular spheroidal BBB models (hiMCS-BBB models), and we herein introduce the model development protocol. Briefly, astrocytes are first seeded in an ultra-low attachment 3D cell culture plate, to make the central core (Day 0). Next, pericytes are added over the core, to form an outer layer (Day 1). Then, brain microvascular endothelial cells are further added to each well, to create the outmost monolayer serving as the BBB (Day 2). Finally, the spheroids cultured for two days (on Day 4) can be used for assays of interest (e.g., antibody permeability assays). Neither special equipment nor techniques are required to produce hiMCS-BBB models. Therefore, the protocol presented here will not only facilitate the model sharing among the BBB community but also provide some technical clues contributing to the development of similar MCS-BBB models using other cell sources, such as primary or iPS-derived BBB cells.


Graphical abstract:




0 Q&A 1543 Views May 20, 2022

Although CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing can be performed directly in single-cell mouse zygotes, the targeting efficiency for more complex modifications such as the insertion of two loxP sites, multiple mutations in cis, or the precise insertion or deletion of longer DNA sequences often remains low (Cohen, 2016). Thus, targeting and validation of correct genomic modification in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with subsequent injection into early-stage mouse embryos may still be preferable, allowing for large-scale screening in vitro before transfer of thoroughly characterized and genetically defined ESC clones into the germline. This procedure can result in a reduction of animal numbers with cost effectiveness and compliance with the 3R principle of animal welfare regulations. Here, we demonstrate that after transfection of homology templates and PX458 CRISPR-Cas9 plasmids, EGFP-positive ESCs can be sorted with a flow cytometer for the enrichment of CRISPR-Cas9-expressing cells. Cell sorting obviates antibiotic selection and therefore allows for more gentle culture conditions and faster outgrowth of ESC clones, which are then screened by qPCR for correct genomic modifications. qPCR screening is more convenient and less time-consuming compared to analyzing PCR samples on agarose gels. Positive ESC clones are validated by PCR analysis and sequencing and can serve for injection into early-stage mouse embryos for the generation of chimeric mice with germline transmission. Therefore, we describe here a simple and straightforward protocol for CRISPR-Cas9-directed gene targeting in ESCs.


Graphical abstract:




0 Q&A 2340 Views May 20, 2022

Genome editing by the delivery of pre-assembled Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (Cas9 RNP) is an increasingly popular approach for cell types that are difficult to manipulate genetically by the conventional plasmid and viral methods. Cas9 RNP editing is robust, precise, capable of multiplexing, and free of genetic materials. Its transient presence in cells limits residual editing activity. This protocol describes the preparation of recombinant Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein by heterologous expression and purification from Escherichia coli, and the synthesis of CRISPR guide RNA by in vitro transcription and PAGE purification. SpCas9 is the first CRISPR Cas9 discovered (Jinek et al., 2012) and is also one of the most characterized Cas enzymes for genome editing applications. Using this formulation of Cas9 RNP, we have demonstrated highly efficient genome editing in primary human T and natural killer (NK) cells by electroporation, and in fungi and plants by polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation. Our protocol of Cas9 RNP preparation is consistent and straightforward to adopt for genome editing in other cell types and organisms.


Graphical abstract:



0 Q&A 1816 Views May 20, 2022

Subcellular localization dynamics of proteins involved in signal transduction processes is crucial in determining the signaling outcome. However, there is very limited information about the localization of endogenous signaling proteins in living cells. For example, biochemical mechanisms underlying the signaling pathway from epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) to RAS-RAF and ERK1/2/MAPK are well understood, whereas the operational domains of this pathway in the cell remain poorly characterized. Tagging of endogenous components of signaling pathways with fluorescent proteins allows more accurate characterization of their intracellular dynamics at their native expression levels controlled by endogenous regulatory mechanisms, thus avoiding possible tainting effects of overexpression and mistargeting. In this study, we describe methodological approaches to label components of the EGFR-RAS-MAPK pathway, such as Grb2, KRAS, and NRAS, with the fluorescent protein mNeonGreen (mNG) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing, as well as generation of homozygous single-cell clones of the edited target protein.

0 Q&A 2068 Views Mar 5, 2022

Directed evolution is a powerful approach to obtain genetically-encoded sought-for traits. Compared to the prolonged adaptation regimes to mutations occurring under natural selection, directed evolution unlocks rapid screening and selection of mutants with improved traits from vast mutated sequence spaces. Many systems have been developed to search variant landscapes based on ex vivo or in vivo mutagenesis, to identify and select new-to-nature and optimized properties in biomolecules. Yet, the majority of such systems rely on tedious iterations of library preparation, propagation, and selection steps. Furthermore, among the relatively few in vivo directed evolution systems developed to mitigate handling of repetitive ex vivo steps, directed evolution of DNA is the standard approach. Here, we present the protocol for designing the transfer of genetic information from evolving RNA donors to DNA in baker’s yeast, using CRISPR- and RNA-assisted in vivo directed evolution (CRAIDE). We use mutant T7 RNA polymerase to introduce mutations in RNA donors, while incorporation into DNA is directed by CRISPR/Cas9. As such, CRAIDE offers an opportunity to study fundamental questions, such as RNA’s contribution to the evolution of DNA-based life on Earth.


Graphic abstract:



CRISPR- and RNA-assisted in vivo directed evolution (CRAIDE).


0 Q&A 5544 Views Mar 5, 2022

The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has transformed our ability to edit eukaryotic genomes. Despite this breakthrough, it remains challenging to precisely knock-in large DNA sequences, such as those encoding a fluorescent protein, for labeling or modifying a target protein in post-mitotic cells. Previous efforts focusing on sequence insertion to the protein coding sequence often suffer from insertions/deletions (INDELs) resulting from the efficient non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). To overcome this limitation, we have developed CRISPR-mediated insertion of exon (CRISPIE). CRISPIE circumvents INDELs and other editing errors by inserting a designer exon flanked by adjacent intron sequences into an appropriate intronic location of the targeted gene. Because INDELs at the insertion junction can be spliced out, “CRISPIEd” genes produce precisely edited mRNA transcripts that are virtually error-free. In part due to the elimination of INDELs, high-efficiency labeling can be achieved in vivo. CRISPIE is compatible with both N- and C-terminal labels, and with all common transfection methods. Importantly, CRISPIE allows for later removal of the protein modification by including exogenous single-guide RNA (sgRNA) sites in the intronic region of the donor module. This protocol provides the detailed CRISPIE methodology, using endogenous labeling of β-actin in human U-2 OS cells with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as an example. When combined with the appropriate gene delivery methods, the same methodology can be applied to label post-mitotic neurons in culture and in vivo. This methodology can also be readily adapted for use in other gene editing contexts.

0 Q&A 1558 Views Dec 5, 2021

The CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient gene editing in various cell types, including post-mitotic neurons. However, neuronal ensembles in the same brain region can still be functionally or anatomically different, and such heterogeneity requires gene editing in specific neuronal populations. We recently developed a CRISPR-SaCas9 system-based technique. Combined with activity-dependent cell-labeling methods and anterograde/retrograde adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, this technique achieves function- and projection-specific gene editing in the mammalian brain. We showed that perturbing cbp (CREB-binding protein) in extinction-ensemble neurons among amygdala-projecting infralimbic cortex (IL) cells impaired fear extinction learning, demonstrating the high efficiency in regulation of extinction learning with CRISPR-Cas9. Here, we describe a detailed protocol of gene perturbation in presynaptic extinction-ensemble neurons in adult rats, including gRNA design, gRNA evaluation in vitro, stereotaxic AAV injection, and contextual fear conditioning. The high specificity and efficiency of projection- and function-specific CRISPR-SaCas9 system can be widely applied in neural circuitry studies.