Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 2251 Views Jan 5, 2021

The subretinal layer between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors is a region involved in inflammation and angiogenesis during the procession of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current protocols of whole mounts (retina and RPE) are unable to address the intact view of the subretinal layer because the separation between retina and RPE is required, and each separate tissue is then stained. Non-separate Sclerochoroid/RPE/Retina whole mount staining was recently developed and reported. The method can be further combined and optimized with melanin bleaching and tissue clearing. Here, we describe steps of both non-pigmented and pigmented mouse Sclerochoroid/RPE/Retina whole mount including eyeball preparation, staining, mounting and confocal scanning. In addition, we present the confocal images of RPE, subretinal microglia and the neighboring photoreceptors in Sclerochoroid/RPE/Retina whole mounts.

0 Q&A 4708 Views May 5, 2019
Aquatic organisms have specialized cells called ionocytes that regulate the ionic composition, osmolarity, and acid/base status of internal fluids. In small aquatic organisms such as fishes in their early life stages, ionocytes are typically found on the cutaneous surface and their abundance can change to help cope with various metabolic and environmental factors. Ionocytes profusely express ATPase enzymes, most notably Na+/K+ ATPase, which can be identified by immunohistochemistry. However, quantification of cutaneous ionocytes is not trivial due to the limited camera’s focal plane and the microscope’s field-of-view. This protocol describes a technique to consistently and reliably identify, image, and measure the relative surface area covered by cutaneous ionocytes through software-mediated focus-stacking and photo-stitching–thereby allowing the quantification of cutaneous ionocyte area as a proxy for ion transporting capacity across the skin. Because ionocytes are essential for regulating ionic composition, osmolarity, and acid/base status of internal fluids, this technique is useful for studying physiological mechanisms used by fish larvae and other small aquatic organisms during development and in response to environmental stress.
0 Q&A 5839 Views Mar 20, 2019
Biofilm formation is a well-known bacterial strategy that protects cells from hostile environments. During infection, bacteria found in a biofilm community are less sensitive to antibiotics and to the immune response, often allowing them to colonize and persist in the host niche. Not surprisingly, biofilm formation on medical devices, such as urinary catheters, is a major problem in hospital settings. To be able to eliminate such biofilms, it is important to understand the key bacterial factors that contribute to their formation. A common practice in the lab setting is to study biofilms grown in laboratory media. However, these media do not fully reflect the host environment conditions, potentially masking relevant biological determinants. This is the case during urinary catheterization, where a key element for Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation is the release of fibrinogen (Fg) into the bladder and its deposition on the urinary catheter. To recapitulate bladder conditions during catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), we have developed a fibrinogen-coated catheter and 96-well plate biofilm assay in urine. Notably, enterococcal biofilm factors identified in these in vitro assays proved to be important for biofilm formation in vivo in a mouse model of CAUTI. Thus, the method described herein can be used to uncover biofilm-promoting factors that are uniquely relevant in the host environment, and that can be exploited to develop new antibacterial therapies.
0 Q&A 7137 Views Dec 5, 2017
The established primary trigger of Alzheimer’s disease’s is β-amyloid (Aβ) (Mucke and Selkoe, 2012). Amyloid precursor protein (APP) endocytosis is required for Aβ generation at early endosomes (Rajendran and Annaert, 2012). APP retention at endosomes also depends on its recycling back to the plasma membrane (Koo et al., 1996; Ubelmann et al., 2017). The following recycling assay has been optimized to assess APP recycling by live murine Neuro2a cells, a neuroblastoma cell line (Ubelmann et al., 2017).
0 Q&A 11712 Views Jul 5, 2016
Determining the protein localization is essential to elucidate its in vivo function. Fluorescence-tagged proteins are widely used for it, but it is sometimes difficult to express tagged proteins in Chlamydomonas. Alternatively, indirect immunofluorescence assay is also one of the widely used methods and many reports determining the localization of Chlamydomonas proteins using this method are published. Here, we introduce a protocol of indirect immunofluorescence assay adapted from our papers reporting LCIB (CO2-recycling factor in the vicinity of pyrenoid; Yamano et al., 2010), LCI1 (plasma membrane-localized inorganic carbon transporter; Ohnishi et al., 2010), HLA3 (plasma membrane-localized ABC-type bicarbonate transporter; Yamano et al., 2015), and LCIA (chloroplast envelope anion channel; Yamano et al., 2015) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The protocol described here could be useful for observing the protein of interest in other algae cells.
0 Q&A 10007 Views Sep 5, 2015
Here we describe the immunolocalization of a membrane-bound proton pump, the V-type H+-ATPase (VHA), in tissues and isolated cells of scleractinian corals. Immunolocalization of coral proteins requires additional steps not required for various model organisms, such as decalcification of the coral skeleton for immunohistochemistry or removal of cells away from the skeleton for immunocytochemistry. The tissue and cell preparation techniques described here can be adapted for localization of other coral proteins, provided the appropriate validation steps have been taken for the primary antibodies and species of coral used. These techniques are important for improving our understanding of coral cell physiology
0 Q&A 13811 Views Sep 20, 2014
In situ hybridization and immunostaining are common techniques for localizing gene expression, the mRNA and protein respectively, within tissues. Both techniques can be applied to tissue sections to achieve similar goals, but in some cases, it is necessary to use them together. For example, complement C1q is a secreted protein complex that can target the innate immune response during inflammation. Complement has been found to be elevated early and before severe neurodegeneration in several disease models. Thus, complement may serve as an important marker for disease progression and may contribute to the pathology under certain conditions. Since complement is a secreted complex, immunostaining for C1q does not necessarily reveal where compliment is produced. In situ hybridization for complement components, C1q a, b, or c mRNA, is ideal to mark complement producing cells in tissue. In situ hybridization can be coupled with cell-type-specific immunostaining for accurate identification of the cell types involved. Protein localization and mRNA localization together can reveal details as to the relationship between complement producing and complement target cells within disease tissues. Here we outline the steps for combined in situ hybridization and immunostaining on the same tissue section. The protocol outlined here has been designed for detection of complement C1q in neurons and microglia in the mouse brain.

Provided here are two approaches for combined ISH/IH. In the 1st example, in situ hybridization of C1q mRNA is performed together with fluorescent detection of Purkinje neuron cell bodies using Calbindin-D28K antibody. In the 2nd example, C1q mRNA in situ is performed together with 3,3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB) detection of microglia using CD68 antibody. Please note that modifications to the protocol may be needed for the use of distinct probes and antibodies, as well as alternate tissue-processing methods that are not specified herein. For appropriate examples of procedure results, please see images published in Lopez et al.. (2012).
0 Q&A 9216 Views Jun 5, 2014
This protocol was used to prepare pre-embedding samples of Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites that overexpressed the parasite protein PF13_0191 tagged with GFP. Using GFP-specific antibodies and Protein A-Gold the localisation of the overexpressed protein in the infected host cell was determined using standard transmission electron microscopy (EM). Pre-embedding EM is a common method where the antibodies are introduced before embedding and sectioning. This method avoids the problem that antigens are often difficult to detect on EM-sections after embedding. In the method described here antigens in the parasite-infected host cell are detected. Entry of the antibody is made possible through permeabilisation of the host cell with tetanolysin. In principle this method could also be used to detect antigens within the parasite if the sample is appropriately fixed and permeabilised before addition of the relevant antibody. While access of the antibody will avoid the detection problems often seen with post-embedding methods, this procedure will produce comparably poorer morphology.
0 Q&A 7826 Views May 5, 2014
Metastasis depends on a gene program expressed by the tumor microenvironment upon TGF-beta stimulation. CRC (Colorectal cancer) cell lines did not induce robust stromal TGF-beta responses when injected into nude mice as shown by lack of p-SMAD2 accumulation in tumor-associated stromal cells. To enforce high TGF-beta signaling in xenografts, we engineered CRC cell lines to secrete active TGF-beta. Subcutaneous tumors obtained from HT29-M6TGF-β, KM12L4aTGF-β cells and SW48TGF-β cells contained abundant p-SMAD2+ stromal cells.
0 Q&A 10060 Views May 5, 2014
We sought to understand the mechanisms behind the potent effect of stromal TGF-beta program on the capacity of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to initiate metastasis. We discovered that mice subcutaneous tumors and metastases generated in the context of a TGF-beta activated microenvironment displayed prominent accumulation of p-STAT3 in CRC cells compared with those derived from control cells. STAT3 signaling depended on GP130 as shown by strong reduction of epithelial p STAT3 levels upon GP130 shRNA-mediated knockdown in CRC cells.

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