Cancer Biology


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0 Q&A 2061 Views Aug 20, 2022

The in-cell western (ICW) is an immunocytochemical technique that has been used to screen for effects of siRNAs, drugs, and small molecule inhibitors. The reduced time and number of cells required to follow this protocol illustrates its semi-high-throughput nature. Performing a successful ICW protocol requires fixing and permeabilizing adherent cells directly in the plate that specifically exposes the epitope of interest. After blocking of non-specific proteins, the cells are incubated overnight with a primary antibody of interest, which is detected via a host-specific near-infrared fluorescently labeled LI-COR secondary antibody. In the final step, the plate is scanned using an Odyssey LI-COR Imaging System or similar, and each of the wells is quantified. For the first time, this technique has been demonstrated to be reproducibly utilized for semi-high-throughput selection of knockout or overexpression clones.

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0 Q&A 4400 Views Mar 20, 2020
The single-cell transcriptome is the set of messenger RNA molecules expressed in one cell. It is extremely variable and changes according to external, physical and biochemical conditions. Due to sensitivity shortages, most of genetic studies use bulk samples, providing only the average gene expression. Single-cell technologies have provided a powerful approach to a more detailed understanding of the heterogenic populations and minority cells. However, since it is still a quite novel technique, standardized protocol has to be established. Single-cell qPCR, although partly limited by the number of genes, is relatively simple to analyze. Therefore, its use is accessible without the necessity to recourse to complex bioinformatics analyses. The main steps for single-cell qPCR, as illustrated in this protocol, are composed by single-cell isolation, cell lysate, cDNA reverse-transcription synthesis, amplification for cDNA library generation, and finally, quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
0 Q&A 4687 Views Dec 5, 2019
In the context of precision medicine, the identification of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of disease, prognosis, predicting treatment outcome and monitoring of treatment success is of great importance. The analysis of methylated circulating-cell free DNA provides great promise to complement or replace genetic markers for these applications, but is associated with substantial challenges. This is particularly true for the detection of rare methylated DNA molecules in a limited amount of sample such as tumor released hypermethylated molecules in the background of DNA fragments from normal cells, especially lymphocytes.

Technologies for the sensitive detection of DNA methylation have been developed to enrich specifically methylated DNA or unmethylated DNA using among other methods: enzymatic digestion, methylation-specific PCR (often combined with TaqMan like oligonucleotide probes (MethyLight)) and co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR).

E-ice-COLD-PCR (Enhanced-improved and complete enrichment-COLD-PCR) is a sensitive method that takes advantage of a Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA)-containing oligonucleotide probe to block specifically unmethylated CpG sites allowing the strong enrichment of low-abundant methylated CpG sites from a limited quantity of input. E-ice-COLD-PCRs are performed on bisulfite-converted DNA followed by Pyrosequencing analysis. The quantification of the initially present DNA methylation level is obtained using calibration curves of methylated and unmethylated DNA. The E-ice-COLD-PCR reactions can be multiplexed, allowing the analysis and quantification of the DNA methylation level of several target genes. In contrast to the above-mentioned assays, E-ice-COLD-PCR will also perform in the presence of frequently occurring heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns at the target sites. The presented protocol describes the development of an E-ice-COLD-PCR assay including assay design, optimization of E-ice-COLD-PCR conditions including annealing temperature, critical temperature and concentration of LNA blocker probe followed by Pyrosequencing analysis.
0 Q&A 8750 Views Aug 5, 2015
Over the last decades numerous regulators of angiogenesis have been identified and characterized. Among the others the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) appears undoubtedly important in several pathophysiological processes. Moreover, VEGFA represents one of the most attractive targets of anticancer therapy, given its major role in the growth and development of different tumor types. Here we describe a method to detect the copy number variation (CNV) status of the VEGFA gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analysis is a reliable method for investigating VEGFA amplification or increased gene copy number and may represent an alternative method to immunohistochemical analysis for investigating the deregulation of VEGFA expression levels.

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