Cell Biology


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0 Q&A 1016 Views Nov 5, 2022

Mature B-cell lymphomas are highly dependent upon the protective lymphoid organ microenvironment for their growth and survival. Targeting integrin-mediated homing and retention of the malignant B cells in the lymphoid organs, using the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, is a highly efficacious FDA-approved therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Unfortunately, a significant subset of patients is intrinsically resistant to ibrutinib or will develop resistance upon prolonged treatment. Here, we describe an unbiased functional genomic CRISPR-Cas9 screening method to identify novel proteins involved in B-cell receptor–controlled integrin-mediated adhesion, which provides novel therapeutic targets to overcome ibrutinib resistance. This screening method is highly flexible and can be easily adapted to identify cell adhesion–regulatory proteins and signaling pathways for other stimuli, adhesion molecules, and cell types.

Graphical abstract:

0 Q&A 2335 Views Jan 5, 2022

Blood endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the primary physical barrier to be crossed by circulating leukocytes, once attracted to a site of ongoing inflammation/infection. Upon a pro-inflammatory stimulus, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), ECs upregulate adhesion molecule expression to favor the adhesion and, subsequently, the transendothelial migration of the attracted lymphocytes. To address the ability of a cell to transmigrate through a monolayer of ECs, the classical transmigration assay is usually performed (Muller and Luscinskas, 2008). In the present protocol, adapted from Safuan et al. (2012), we describe an in vitro assay for assessing the functionality of the second step of the transendothelial migration, i.e., the firm adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to ECs, under static conditions. By pre-incubating primary human umbilical cord ECs (HUVECs) with either innate lymphoid cell progenitors (ILCPs) or TNF, we were able to upregulate adhesion molecules on the EC surface. Then, by adding total PBMCs, we were able to both quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the cellular subtype and number of PBMCs that adhered to the pre-treated ECs. The important advantage of this technique is the possibility to perform functional studies on ECs biology since, differently from transwell-based strategies, it allows a good recovery of ECs at the end of the assay. Overall, this assay enables to interrogate how/if different stimulations/cell types can influence EC ability to retain PBMCs in vitro, under static conditions.

Graphic abstract:

The workflow of the Static Adhesion Assay.

0 Q&A 3007 Views Dec 5, 2020

During immune responses, B cells home to lymph nodes (LN), where they encounter antigens. Homing starts with capture and L-selectin-dependent rolling on the activated endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV). After recognition of chemokines presented on HEV, activation of B cell integrins occurs mediating firm arrest. Subsequently, B cells crawl to the spot of extravasation to enter the LN. Extravasation can be visualized and quantified in vivo by intravital microscopy (IVM) of the inguinal LN. Here, we describe an established protocol that permits detailed in vivo analysis of B cell recruitment to LN under sterile inflammatory conditions. We describe data acquisition, exportation, quantification, and statistical analysis using specialized software. IVM of LN is a powerful technique that can provide a better understanding of B cell migratory behavior during inflammation in vivo.

0 Q&A 3254 Views Dec 20, 2019
Spherical zoospores of a rare actinomycete, Actinoplanes missouriensis, adhere to various hydrophobic solid surfaces by means of type IV pili. The purpose of this protocol is to provide detailed descriptions of the preparation of A. missouriensis zoospores and an assay for the adhesion of the zoospores to solid surfaces. This adhesion assay, which measures numbers of zoospores that adhered to the dish surface and swimming zoospores in a tunnel chamber by using a phase-contrast microscope, can also be used for swimming cells of other microorganisms.
0 Q&A 10557 Views Feb 20, 2017
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are defined by their functional abilities to self-renew and to give rise to all mature blood and immune cell types throughout life. Most HSCs are retained in a non-motile quiescent state within a specialized protective microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM) termed the niche. HSCs are typically distinguished from other adult stem cells by their motility capacity. Movement of HSCs across the physical barrier of the marrow extracellular matrix and blood vessel endothelial cells is facilitated by suppression of adhesion interactions, which are essential to preserve the stem cells retained within their BM niches. Importantly, homing of HSCs to the BM following clinical transplantation is a crucial first step for the repopulation of ablated BM as in the case of curative treatment strategies for hematologic malignancies. The homing process ends with selective access and anchorage of HSCs to their specialized niches within the BM. Adhesion molecules are targets to either enhance homing in cases of stem cell transplantation or reduce BM retention to harvest mobilized HSCs from the blood of matched donors. A major adhesion protein which is functionally expressed on HSCs and is involved in their homing and retention is the integrin alpha4beta1 (Very late antigen-4; VLA4). In this protocol we introduce an adhesion assay optimized for VLA4 expressing murine bone marrow stem cells. This assay quantifies adherent HSCs by flow cytometry with HSC enriching cell surface markers subsequent to the isolation of VLA4 expressing adherent cells.
0 Q&A 9882 Views Aug 20, 2016
Cell-cell adhesion ensures tight contacts between neighbouring cells, which is necessary for cell segregation, as well as for the morphological and functional differentiation of different tissues. Evidently there are cell-cell recognition systems that make cells of the same type preferentially adherent to one another. Homotypic cell adhesion is particularly important in mediating a range of physiological processes such as cell survival, migration and remodeling of vessels. Thus in the present study we selected two populations of endothelial progenitor cells which are from the same donor to investigate the possible effect of a small molecule compound Icariin on homotypic cell adhesion. Many angiogenic factors can destabilize the organization of intercellular junctions, causing endothelial barrier opening. In the present study, we observed that Icariin treatment reduced the level of VE-cadherin expression in EPCs indicating a decrease in cell-cell adhesion-a proof of the pro-angiogenic effect of Icariin. In summary, the observed loss of homotypic adhesion of EPCs may contribute to the enhanced angiogenic effect exerted by Icariin.

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