Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2431 Views Jan 20, 2022

Larval zebrafish have been established as an excellent model for examining vertebrate biology, with many researchers using the system for neuroscience. Controlling a fast escape response of the fish, the Mauthner cells and their associated network are an attractive model, given their experimental accessibility and fast development, driving ethologically relevant behavior in the first five days of development. Here, we describe methods for immunostaining electrical and chemical synapse proteins at 3-7 days post fertilization (dpf) in zebrafish using tricholoracetic acid fixation. The methods presented are ideally suited to easily visualize neural circuits and synapses within the fish.

0 Q&A 3545 Views Dec 20, 2020

Immunohistochemistry is a widely used technique to examine the expression and subcellular localization of proteins. This technique relies on the specificity of antibodies and requires adequate penetration of antibodies into tissues. The latter is especially challenging for thick specimens, such as embryos and other whole-mount preparations. Here we describe an improved method of immunohistochemistry for retinal whole-mount preparations. We report that a cocktail of three reagents, Triton X-100, Tween-20, and DMSO, in blocking and antibody dilution buffers strongly enhances immunolabeling in whole-mount retinas from adult zebrafish. In addition, we establish that in whole retinal tissues, a classic epitope retrieval method, based on citrate buffer, is effective for immunolabeling membrane-associated proteins. Overall, this simple modification allows precise and reproducible immunolabeling of proteins in retinal whole-mounts.

0 Q&A 3917 Views Nov 20, 2019
In the nervous system of vertebrates, nerve impulse propagation is accelerated by the ensheathment of neuronal axons with myelin. Myelin sheaths are molecularly specialized, lipid-rich plasma membrane extensions of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). To visualize myelinated nerve fibers and to allow for the morphological analyses of myelin in the brain and the spinal cord, an efficient method for silver impregnation of myelin has originally been developed by Ferenc Gallyas in 1979, referred to as Gallyas silver impregnation. Gallyas’ method is based on the agyrophilic characteristic of myelin to form and bind silver particles, while this process is suppressed in tissues other than myelin. The silver particles are finally enhanced in a developing step (“physical developer”). The main advantage of this method is that it efficiently visualizes both large myelinated fiber tracts and individual myelinated axons. Here we provide our laboratory protocol that is suitable for paraffin embedded sections and the use of light microscopy based on Gallyas’ original protocol and subsequent modifications by Pistorio and colleagues.
2 Q&A 22725 Views Jan 5, 2016
Fluoro-Jade is a fluorescent derivative used for histological staining of degenerating neurons. This technique is simple and sensitive enough to label distal dendrites, axons, axon terminals as well as neuronal bodies. Fluoro-Jade has excitation and emission peak of 480 and 525 nanometer respectively. It can be visualized using a fluorescein/FITC filter. Some reports have demonstrated that Fluoro-Jade can also be useful to detect glial cell death (Anderson et al., 2013; Damjanac et al., 2007).

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