Cancer Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 452 Views Jun 5, 2024

Neutrophils, constituting 50%–70% of circulating leukocytes, play crucial roles in host defense and exhibit anti-tumorigenic properties. An elevated peripheral blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with decreased survival rates in cancer patients. In response to exposure to various antigens, neutrophils release neutrophil granular proteins, which combine to form web-like structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Previously, the relative percentage of NETs was found to be increased in resected tumor tissue samples from patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. The presence of NETs in peripheral blood is indicative of underlying pathological conditions. Hence, employing a non-invasive method to detect NETs in peripheral blood, along with other diagnostic tests, shows potential as a valuable tool not just for identifying different inflammatory disorders but also for assessing disease severity and determining patient suitability for surgical resection. While reliable methods exist for identifying NETs in tissue, accurately quantifying them in whole blood remains challenging. Many previous methods are time-consuming and rely on a limited set of markers that are inadequate for fully characterizing NETs. Therefore, we established a unique sensitive smear immunofluorescence assay based on blood smears to identify NETs in only as little as 2 μL of whole blood. To identify the NET complexes that have enhanced specificities, this combines the use of various antibodies against neutrophil-specific CD15, NET-specific myeloperoxidase (MPO), citrullinated histone H3 (Cit H3), and nuclear DNA. This protocol offers an easy, affordable, rapid, and non-invasive method for identifying NETs; thus, it can be utilized as a diagnostic marker and targeted through various therapeutic approaches for treating human malignancies.

0 Q&A 6146 Views Jul 5, 2020
This protocol provides a step-by-step method to create recombinant fluorescent fusion proteins that can be secreted from mammalian cell lines. This builds on many other recombinant protein and fluorescent protein techniques, but is among the first to harness fluorescent fusion proteins secreted directly into cell culture supernatant. This opens new possibilities that are not achievable with proteins produced in bacteria or yeast, such as direct use of the fluorescent protein-secreting cells in live co-culture assays. The Fluorescent Adaptable Simple Theranostic (FAST) protein system includes a histidine purification tag and a tobacco etch virus (TEV) cleavage site, allowing the purification tag and fluorescent protein to be removed for therapeutic use. This protocol is split into five parts: (A) In silico characterization of the gene-of-interest (GOI) and protein-of-interest (POI); (B) design of the expression vector; (C) assembly of the expression vector; (D) transfection of a eukaryotic cell line with the expression vector; (E) testing of the recombinant protein. This extensive protocol can be completed with only polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture training. Additionally, each part of the protocol can be used independently.
0 Q&A 5074 Views Feb 5, 2019
Until recently, whole-proteome microarrays for comprehensive studies of protein interactions were mostly produced by individual cloning and cellular expression of very many open reading frames, followed by protein isolation and purification as well as array production. To overcome this cumbersome process, we have developed a method to generate microarrays representing entire proteomes by a combination of multiple spotting and on-chip, cell-free protein expression. Here, we describe the protocol for the production of bacterial protein microarrays. With slight adaptations, however, the procedure can be applied to the proteome of any organism. Expression constructs of each gene are generated by PCR on bacterial genomic DNA followed by a common secondary amplification that is adding relevant regulative elements to either end of the constructs. The unpurified PCR-products are spotted onto the microarray surface. Full-length proteins are directly expressed in situ in a cell-free manner and stay attached to the surface without further action. As an example of a typical application, we describe here the proteome-wide analysis of the immune response to a bacterial infectious agent by characterizing the binding profiles of the antibodies in patient sera.
0 Q&A 8203 Views Oct 20, 2016
Extracellular tumor material including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic tumor debris may help cancers invade new organs. Enhancing the removal of extracellular tumor material by immune cells represents a novel immunotherapy approach for preventing cancer metastasis. This protocol quantifies the uptake and removal of extracellular tumor material from circulation and tissues by immune cells. In this assay fluorescent tumor cells are transferred into mice, and then immune cells are quantified by either flow cytometry or imaging cytometry for their uptake of tumor material.
0 Q&A 7967 Views May 5, 2014
Vaccine-based immunotherapy is being used to treat dogs with primary brain tumors. The vaccines are composed of a lysate of autologous tumor cells, which stimulate an immune response producing tumor specific antibodies that are capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to allogeneic, as well as autologous, tumor cells. This protocol will describe the tumor cell serum antibody-binding assay to measure the tumor-reactive IgG antibody response. Key features of this assay are that it is performed with sera collected from the canine patient prior to and following vaccination as the source of antibodies and canine brain tumor cells used as the target cells.

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