Cancer Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 4434 Views Apr 20, 2019
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) herpesvirus (KSHV) is a virus that causes KS, an angiogenic AIDS-associated spindle-cell neoplasm, by activating host oncogenic signaling cascades through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Many host signaling cascades co-opted by KSHV including PI3K/AKT/mTORC, NFkB and Notch are critical for cell-specific mechanisms of transformation and their identification is paving the way to therapeutic target discovery. Analysis of the molecular KS signature common to human KS tumors and our mouse KS-like tumors showed consistent expression of KS markers VEGF and PDGF receptors with upregulation of other angiogenesis ligands and their receptors in vivo. This points to the autocrine and paracrine activation of various receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling axes. Hereby we describe a protocol to screen for activated receptor tyrosine kinase of KSHV-induced KS-like mouse tumors using a Mouse Phospho-RTK Array Kit and its validation by RTK western blots. We showed that this method can be successfully used to rank the tyrosine kinase receptors most activated in tumors in an unbiased manner. This allowed us to identify PDGFRA as an oncogenic driver and therapeutic target in AIDS-KS.
0 Q&A 9842 Views Nov 5, 2017
This protocol provides step by step instructions to perform an in vitro kinase assay for nemo-like kinase. In addition, this protocol also describes an efficient method using mild lysis buffer for expression and purification of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins.
0 Q&A 12791 Views Dec 5, 2014
The activation of functions that counteract the physiological shortening of telomeres in rapidly proliferating cell is prerequisite for the progression of cancer cells to full malignancy (Collado et al., 2007). In most human cancers, the length of telomere is maintained through up-regulation of telomerase whereas a telomerase-independent pathway, termed Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is active in about 10-15% of cancers (Johnson and Broccoli, 2007; Heaphy et al., 2011). One characteristic feature of ALT is the formation of ALT-associated Promyelocytic Leukemia nuclear bodies (APBs) (Lang et al., 2010; Yeager et al., 1999). APBs contain Promyelocytic Leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB) components such as PML, SP100 and SUMO, telomeric DNA and telomere associated proteins including the shelterin components TRF1, TRF2, POT1, TIN2, TPP1 and Rap1 (Yeager et al., 1999). In addition, APBs contain proteins involved in DNA repair. In particular, the presence of components of the homologous recombination machinery suggests that APBs may promote telomere elongation by facilitating the homologous recombination of telomeric templates (Nabetani et al., 2004; Stavropoulos et al., 2002). This is also supported by the requirement of the homologous recombination-associated MRN complex for APB formation (Wu et al., 2000). Furthermore, APBs are suggested to be active sites of ATM and ATR dependent DNA repair (Nabetani et al., 2004). Finally, the number of APBs increases in G2 phase of the cell cycle when recombination is mainly active (Grobelny et al., 2000). We have shown that infection of normal and malignant B lymphocytes with the human oncogenic herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the induction of APBs and with numerous signs of chromosomal and genomic instability (Kamranvar et al., 2007; Kamranvar and Masucci, 2011; Kamranvar et al., 2013).

Here we describe a method for detection of APBs in human B-lymphocytes. The method can be applied with minor modifications to different cell types including adherent, suspension and primary cells.

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