Cancer Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 4458 Views Jan 20, 2022

Organoids are complex three-dimensional structures, which contain different cell types and help to overcome many limitations of conventional 2D cell culture techniques. Here, we present a protocol for the cultivation of murine matched-pairs of small intestinal and colonic epithelial organoids, and colonic tumor organoids derived from the chemical colorectal cancer (CRC) AOM/DSS mouse model. Therefore, intestinal crypts or tumor tissue containing stem cells are isolated from the same donor mouse and cultivated in Matrigel®. The culture medium is supplemented with different growth factors to model the intestinal stem cell niche, allowing their self-renewal and differentiation. Matched-pair organoids enable the analysis of pharmacological effects and the tumor selectivity of drugs.

Graphic abstract:

Schematic overview of colonic matched pair organoid preparation, generated from the chemical AOM/DSS colorectal cancer mouse model. Please note that normal colon-derived organoids (green) differ in their morphology from tumor-derived organoids (red). Normal colonic-derived organoids display a thicker and crypt-like epithelial layer, whereas tumor-derived organoids are round with a thin epithelial layer.

0 Q&A 7338 Views Mar 5, 2017
Aequorin is a Ca2+ sensitive photoprotein suitable to measure intracellular Ca2+ transients in mammalian cells. Thanks to recombinant cDNAs expression, aequorin can be specifically targeted to various subcellular compartments, thus allowing an accurate measurement of Ca2+ uptake and release of different intracellular organelles. Here, we describe how to use this probe to measure cytosolic Ca2+ levels and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in mammalian cells.
0 Q&A 12894 Views Jan 20, 2017
NADH and NADPH are redox cofactors, primarily involved in catabolic and anabolic metabolic processes respectively. In addition, NADPH plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defence. In live cells and tissues, the intensity of their spectrally-identical autofluorescence, termed NAD(P)H, can be used to probe the mitochondrial redox state, while their distinct enzyme-binding characteristics can be used to separate their relative contributions to the total NAD(P)H intensity using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). These protocols allow differences in metabolism to be detected between cell types and altered physiological and pathological states.
0 Q&A 13891 Views Jan 5, 2017
In vivo xenograft models derived from human cancer cells have been a gold standard for evaluating the genetic drivers of cancer and are valuable preclinical models for evaluating the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Recently, patient-derived tumorgrafts from multiple tumor types have been developed and shown to more accurately recapitulate the molecular and histological heterogeneity of cancer. Here we detail the procedures for developing patient-derived xenograft models from breast cancer tissue, cell-based xenograft models, serial tumor transplantation, tumor measurement, and drug treatment.

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