Immunology


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Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2487 Views Jan 20, 2021

Research on wound healing majorly relies on rat, mice and other animal models. However, an alternative animal model ought to be brought in the field, pertaining to the stringent ethical issues owing to the use of animals in research. In this regard, Caenorhabdits elegans, a miniature model nematode gains the great attention of the researchers in wound healing. Though, the model is being explored in wound research for more than a decade, the existing protocols lack the acquisition of large wound population that in turn could enable the utility of global genomics (G), proteomics (P) and metabolomics (M) based approaches. In order to overcome the inadequacy of the existing protocols, the protocol described here affords the acquisition of voluminous wound population in C. elegans using truncated glasswool pieces to enable the utility of high throughput analytical techniques.


Graphic abstract



Steps involved in glass wool wounding protocol.

0 Q&A 2204 Views Dec 20, 2020

Insects rely on the simple but effective innate immune system to combat infection. Cellular and humoral responses are interconnected and synergistic in insects’ innate immune system. Phagocytosis is one major cellular response. It is difficult to collect clean hemolymph from the small insect like pea aphid. Here, we provide a practicable method for small insects hemocyte phagocytosis assay by taking pea aphid as an example. Furthermore, we provide the protocols for pea aphid rearing and bacterial infection, which offer referential method for related research.

0 Q&A 7712 Views Nov 20, 2017
Over the past 15 years, the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans has become an important model system for exploring eukaryotic innate immunity to bacterial and fungal pathogens. More recently, infection models using either natural or non-natural nematode viruses have also been established in C. elegans. These models offer new opportunities to use the nematode to understand eukaryotic antiviral defense mechanisms. Here we report protocols for the infection of C. elegans with a non-natural viral pathogen, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) through microinjection. We also describe how recombinant VSV strains encoding fluorescent or luciferase reporter genes can be used in conjunction with simple fluorescence-, survival-, and luminescence-based assays to identify host genetic backgrounds with differential susceptibilities to virus infection.
1 Q&A 11846 Views Oct 20, 2012
Schistosoma haematobiumis the etiologic agent for urogenital schistosomiasis, a major source of morbidity and mortality for more than 112 million people worldwide. Infection with S. haematobium results in a variety of immunopathologic sequelae caused by parasite oviposition within the urinary tract, which drives inflammation, hematuria, fibrosis, bladder dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to urothelial carcinoma. Since most of the pathology in schistosomasis is directly attributable to the host reaction to eggs and egg-associated antigens, their isolation and study are important experimental techniques. S. haematobium eggs can be collected from infected tissues for injection into other animals or preparation of crude egg extracts. This protocol describes a simple way to isolate eggs.

Schistosomes are a biohazard. Workers should wear latex gloves at all times when handling schistosomal materials or any tissues from infected animals.



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