Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    A Simplified Paradigm of Late Gestation Transient Prenatal Hypoxia to Investigate Functional and Structural Outcomes from a Developmental Hypoxic Insult
    Authors:  Elyse C. Gadra and Ana G. Cristancho, date: 10/05/2022, view: 521, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Late-gestation transient intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of birth injury. It can lead to long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities even in the absence of gross anatomic injury. Currently, postnatal models of hypoxia–ischemia are most commonly used to study the effect of oxygen deprivation in the fetal brain. These models, however, are

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    Identification and Monitoring of Nucleotide Repeat Expansions Using Southern Blotting in Drosophila Models of C9orf72 Motor Neuron Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia
    Authors:  Joanne L. Sharpe, Nikki S. Harper and Ryan J. H. West, date: 05/20/2022, view: 954, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Repeat expansion diseases, including fragile X syndrome, Huntington’s disease, and C9orf72-related motor neuron disease and frontotemporal dementia, are a group of disorders associated with polymorphic expansions of tandem repeat nucleotide sequences. These expansions are highly repetitive and often hundreds to thousands of repeats in

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    Induction of Repeated Social Defeat Stress in Rats
    Authors:  Soumyabrata Munshi, Alexandra Ritger and J. Amiel Rosenkranz, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1327, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) is a model of chronic stress in rodents. There are several variants of social defeat procedures that exert robust effects in mice, but few published detailed protocols to produce a robust stress and altered immunological profile in rats. In this article, we describe the protocol for the induction of RSDS in

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    Cortical Laminar Recording of Multi-unit Response to Distal Forelimb Electrical Stimulation in Rats
    Authors:  Charles-Francois V. Latchoumane, Rameen Forghani and Lohitash Karumbaiah, date: 11/20/2021, view: 1986, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) survivors experience permanent functional disabilities due to significant volume loss and the brain’s poor capacity to regenerate. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) are key regulators of growth factor signaling and neural stem cell homeostasis in the brain. In this protocol, we describe how

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    Macroscopic Structural and Connectome Mapping of the Mouse Brain Using Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Authors:  Tanzil Mahmud Arefin, Choong Heon Lee, Jordon D. White, Jiangyang Zhang and Arie Kaffman, date: 11/20/2021, view: 2444, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Translational work in rodents elucidates basic mechanisms that drive complex behaviors relevant to psychiatric and neurological conditions. Nonetheless, numerous promising studies in rodents later fail in clinical trials, highlighting the need for improving the translational utility of preclinical studies in rodents. Imaging of small rodents

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    Visual-stimuli Four-arm Maze test to Assess Cognition and Vision in Mice
    [Abstract]

    Visual impairments, notably loss of contrast sensitivity and color vision, were documented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients yet are critically understudied. This protocol describes a novel visual-stimuli four-arm maze (ViS4M; also called visual x-maze), which is a versatile x-shaped maze equipped with spectrum- and intensity-controlled

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    A Simple Spatial-independent Associative and Reversal Learning Task in Mice
    Authors:  Fulvio Magara, Benjamin Boury-Jamot and Hanna Hörnberg, date: 08/05/2021, view: 1731, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The ability to adapt one's behavior in response to changing circumstances, or cognitive flexibility, is often altered in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions. In rodents, cognitive flexibility is frequently assessed using associative learning paradigms with a reversal component. The majority of existing protocols rely on

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    Operant Vapor Self-administration in Mice
    [Abstract]

    Models of drug addiction in rodents are instrumental in understanding the underlying neurobiology. Intravenous self-administration of drugs in mice is currently the most commonly used model; however, several challenges exist due to complications related to catheter patency. To take full advantage of the genetic tools available to study opioid

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    Activity-based Anorexia for Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience in Mice
    Authors:  Jeff A. Beeler and Nesha S. Burghardt, date: 05/05/2021, view: 1734, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used rodent model of anorexia nervosa. It involves combining limited access to food with unlimited access to a running wheel, leading to a paradoxical decrease in food intake, hyperactivity, and life-threatening weight loss. Although initially characterized in rats, ABA has been tested in mice with results

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    Nestlet Shredding and Nest Building Tests to Assess Features of Psychiatric Disorders in Mice
    Authors:  Fabian Dorninger, Gerhard Zeitler and Johannes Berger, date: 12/20/2020, view: 3098, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Mimicking the various facets of human psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in animal models is a challenging task. Nevertheless, mice have emerged as a widely used model system to study pathophysiology and treatment strategies for these diseases. However, the corresponding behavioral tests are often elaborate and require extensive

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