Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 3329 Views Dec 20, 2021

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (or lipooligosaccharides [LOS], which lack the O-antigen side chains characteristic of LPS), and outer membrane proteins (OMP) are major cell-surface molecules in the outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria. The LPS is responsible for causing endotoxic shock in infected hosts and, in conjunction with some OMPs, provides protection to the bacterium against host innate immune defenses and attachment to host cells. Electrophoretic analysis can provide valuable information regarding the size, number, and variability of LPS/LOS and OMP components between bacterial strains and mutants, which aids in understanding the basic biology and virulence factors of a particular species. Furthermore, highly purified extracts are normally not required if only electrophoretic analysis is to be done, and various methods have been established for such procedures. Here, we review ameliorated procedures for fast and convenient extraction of LPS/LOS and protein-enriched outer membranes (PEOM) for optimal electrophoretic resolution. Specifically, we will describe the phenol-based micro-method for LPS/LOS extraction, a differential extraction procedure with sodium lauryl sarcosinate for PEOM, and gel preparation for electrophoretic analysis of LPS/LOS samples in detail.

Graphic abstract:

Workflow for the preparation and analysis of LPS/LOS and PEOM.

0 Q&A 4951 Views May 20, 2021

Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) have been discovered in a wide range of organisms. Their functions are essential to the survival or virulence of many species. PFTs often interact with lipid membranes. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), also known as liposomes, have been commonly used as reliable membrane models for testing PFTs activity. Liposomes have great adaptability in size, lipid composition, and loading cargo. Incorporating the fluorescent dye/quencher pair, 8-Aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-Trisulfonic Acid (ANTS) and p-Xylene-Bis-Pyridinium Bromide (DPX), in liposomes is an effective approach for measuring membrane leakage. When ANTS and DPX are encapsulated in a liposome, the fluorescence of ANTS is quenched by DPX. However, disruption of liposome integrity and subsequent leakage result in measurable fluorescence emitted by ANTS. Here, we report our protocol for optimal liposome preparation for measuring liposome leakage by fluorescence dequenching.

0 Q&A 6726 Views Oct 20, 2018
Aptamers have emerged as a novel category in the field of bioreceptors due to their wide applications ranging from biosensing to therapeutics. Several variations of their screening process, called SELEX have been reported which can yield sequences with desired properties needed for their final use. We report a facile microtiter plate-based Cell-SELEX method for a gram-negative bacteria E. coli. The optimized protocol allows the reduction of number of rounds for SELEX by offering higher surface area and longer retention times. In addition, this protocol can be modified for other prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and glycan moieties as target for generation of high affinity bio-receptors in a short course of time in-vitro.
0 Q&A 8665 Views Nov 5, 2013
Phenotypes observed for certain Moraxella catarrhalis wild-type strains or mutants may be caused by a variety of factors including alteration of outer membrane protein composition. Examination of the outer membrane protein profiles may be a valuable tool to identify changes in outer membrane compositions of these strains. Here we describe a method to isolate and analyse M. catarrhalis fractions highly enriched for membrane proteins.

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