Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 11411 Views Aug 5, 2017
The plant endomembrane system plays vital roles for synthesis, modification and secretion of proteins and lipids. From the classic view, only mRNAs encoding secreted proteins could be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for translation via a co-translational translocation manner, however, recently this model has been challenged by accumulative evidence that lots of cytosolic mRNAs could also associate with ER, and that some categories of small RNAs are enriched on ER. These results suggested unrevealed functions of ER beyond our current knowledge. The large scale identification of RNAs and proteins on microsome is crucial to demonstrating the ER function and the studies will be boosted by next generation sequencing technology. This protocol provides a technical workflow to isolate the cytosol, microsome, free polysome (FP) and membrane bound polysome (MBP) from plant tissue. The isolated fractions are suitable for genome wide profiling of mRNAs, small RNAs and proteins.
0 Q&A 10456 Views May 5, 2016
Auxin is a major growth hormone in plants and the first plant hormone to be discovered and studied (Darwin and Darwin, 1880). The auxin molecule in plants was first identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by Kögl et al. (1934). Active research over nearly a decade has shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms of its action but the complexity and redundancy of the auxin biosynthetic network raises questions about control of this system. We have shown that some enzymes involved in the YUCCA-route of auxin biosynthesis are not cytosolic but localised to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both Arabidopsis thaliana (YUCCA4.2) (Kriechbaumer et al., 2012) as well as Zea mays (ZmTAR1 and ZmSPI) (Kriechbaumer et al., 2015). This is raising the intriguing possibility of subcellular compartmentation of auxin biosynthesis. To show that maize auxin biosynthesis indeed can take place in microsomal as well as cytosolic cellular fractions from maize seedlings we applied the protocol described here: Microsomes are being isolated from maize coleoptile and primary root tissue, enzyme assays with microsomal and cytosolic fractions using either tryptophan (Trp) or indole- -3pyruvic acid (IPyA) as a substrate are carried out and the auxin IAA is extracted and quantified.
0 Q&A 12026 Views Feb 5, 2014
This protocol details the extraction of microsomes from frozen tissue in order to further examine the protein-protein interactions occurring within the endoplasmic reticulum. This protocol was adapted from Abisambra et al. (2013) with modifications made in order to optimize for subsequent use.
0 Q&A 8364 Views May 20, 2013
Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides and are present in cell walls of all land plants. Mannan polysaccharides are synthesized by two enzymes, mannan synthase (ManS) for backbone (mannan or glucomannan) synthesis and galactomannan galactosyl transferase for side-chain (galactosyl) addition. Here, a method for ManS activity assay using microsomes freshly isolated from Arabidopsis stems is described. This method can be applied to isolation of microsomes from any tissues of Arabidopsis or any other plants.

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