Cell Biology


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0 Q&A 2635 Views Dec 20, 2021

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a highly heterogenous blood cancer, in which the expansion of aberrant myeloid blood cells interferes with the generation and function of normal blood cells. Although key driver mutations and their associated inhibitors have been identified in the last decade, they have not been fully translated into better survival rates for AML patients, which remain dismal. In addition to DNA mutation, studies in mouse models strongly suggest that the cell of origin, where the driver mutation (such as MLL fusions) occurs, emerges as an additional factor that determines the treatment outcome in AML. To investigate its functional relevance in human disease, we have recently reported that AML driven by MLL fusions can transform immunophenotypically and functionally distinctive human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or myeloid progenitors resulting in immunophenotypically indistinguishable human AML. Intriguingly, these cells display differential treatment sensitivities to current treatments, attesting the cell of origin as an important determinant governing treatment outcome for AML. To further facilitate this line of investigation, here we describe a comprehensive disease modelling protocol using human primary haematopoietic cells, which covers all the key steps, from the isolation of immunophenotypically defined human primary haematopoietic stem and progenitor populations, to oncogene transfer via viral transduction, the in vitro liquid culture assay, and finally the xenotransplantation into immunocompromised mice.

1 Q&A 4427 Views Jan 5, 2021
Cell suspension cultures have been studied for decades to produce natural molecules. However, the difficulty in generating stably transformed cell lines has limited their use to produce high value chemicals reproducibly and in elevated quantities.

In this protocol, a method to stably transform and maintain Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures is devised and presented in detail. Arabidopsis cell cultures were directly transformed with A. tumefaciens for the overexpression of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) jasmonate receptor. Cell cultures were established after transformation and continuously maintained and tested for the overexpression of COI1. The protocol was also previously used to silence Arabidopsis peroxidases and allows for long term maintenance of transformed cells. Details on culture maintenance, both in liquid and solid media are provided, alongside with evidence of protein expression to confirm transformation.

The system described provides a powerful tool for synthetic biology to study signaling independent of developmental control and to obtain metabolites of interest for the biotechnological and medical sectors.

0 Q&A 8465 Views Dec 5, 2017
Various genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocation cause leukemia. For examples, gene rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene generate MLL fusion genes, whose products are potent oncogenic drivers in acute leukemia. To better understand the mechanism of disease onset, several murine leukemia models using retroviral gene transduction, xenograft, or Cre-mediated chromosomal translocation have been developed over the past twenty years. Particularly, a retroviral gene transduction-mediated murine leukemia model has been frequently used in the leukemia research field. Here, we describe the detailed protocol for this model.
0 Q&A 13882 Views Jan 5, 2017
In vivo xenograft models derived from human cancer cells have been a gold standard for evaluating the genetic drivers of cancer and are valuable preclinical models for evaluating the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Recently, patient-derived tumorgrafts from multiple tumor types have been developed and shown to more accurately recapitulate the molecular and histological heterogeneity of cancer. Here we detail the procedures for developing patient-derived xenograft models from breast cancer tissue, cell-based xenograft models, serial tumor transplantation, tumor measurement, and drug treatment.
2 Q&A 10675 Views Aug 5, 2013
Cellular transformation is a widely used method to artificially induce cells to form tumours in vivo. Here, we describe the methodology for malignant transformation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) for transplantation into immunodeficient nude mice, as used in Leong et al. (2013). The two-step process involves: 1) down-regulation of Trp53 expression using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA); and 2) overexpression of the oncogenic HRasV12 protein. Reduction of Trp53 expression leads to cell immortalisation, and the subsequent overexpression of oncogenic HRasV12 results in malignant transformation of a cell.

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