Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 6045 Views Feb 5, 2018
This protocol delivers a method to determine the biosynthetic capability of comfrey leaves for pyrrolizidine alkaloids independently from other organs like roots or flowers.

The protocol applies and combines radioactive tracer experiments with standard and modern techniques like thin layer chromatography (TLC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
0 Q&A 7459 Views Feb 20, 2017
Various parts of the caper tree Capparis decidua have found application in traditional medicine. The isolation and structural elucidation of the codonocarpine type alkaloids contained in the root bark, however, is not trivial and has probably led to misinterpretation in the past. This protocol describes the extraction and chromatographic separation of the four major alkaloids of the root bark of Capparis decidua. The delivered samples of cadabicine, codonocarpine, isocodonocarpine and capparidisinine were suitable for their unambiguous structural elucidation by NMR, MS and MS/MS.
0 Q&A 11185 Views Oct 20, 2015
A plethora of natural products, mostly secondary metabolites, are isolated and purified from many different organisms, like plants, fungi, algae, marine invertebrates, etc. The extraction procedure is specific to each organism, but some guidelines are usually followed for any purification procedure regarding targeted metabolites, such as alkaloids. Alkaloids are secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen in their structures and they are often associated with interesting biological properties especially in pharmacology field. This protocol describes the isolation procedure of indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia nukuhivensis directly from the ethanol extract of the plant material yielding different skeleton-type compounds including non-basic derivatives (ajmaline, sarpagine, macroline and β-carboline). The procedure details the guidelines and the steps to characterize new or known isolated compounds, beginning from the plant collection to the molecule level with the use of spectroscopic techniques (NMR, MS, UV). We detailed the extraction and fractionation procedures followed by the purification of compounds, as well as their physico-chemical characterizations. The procedure is illustrated by the example of the purification of a large array of indole alkaloids from the bark of Rauvolfia nukuhivensis.
0 Q&A 10878 Views Jun 20, 2013
Paper chromatography is an ancient technique to separate low molecular mass compounds based on their distribution between mobile phase (solvent) and stationary phase (cellulose and cellulose-bound water). Paper chromatography has been largely replaced by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography as the latter methods have higher resolution capability. Nevertheless due to low cost and availability of great number of protocols for separation of various compounds, paper chromatography is still a powerful analytical tool. In the current protocol this technique is exemplified by separation of urocanic acid and deaminohistidine.
0 Q&A 10937 Views Apr 20, 2013
In this protocol, the determination of the nicotine concentration in nectar of Nicotiana attenuata is described. This method is applicable for the investigation of small amounts of nectar (above 1 μl). It is a high-throughput protocol optimized and streamlined for one skilled person to process approximately 100 nectar samples per day.

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