Protocols in Current Issue
    Von Willebrand Factor Multimer Analysis by Low Resolution SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
    Authors:  Herbert Gritsch, Margit Stimpfl and Peter L. Turecek, date: 08/20/2022, view: 578, Q&A: 1

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a complex glycoprotein found in plasma, composed of disulfide-bond-linked multimers with apparent molecular weights between 500 kDa and 20,000 kDa. After release of VWF from storage granules, it is cleaved in flowing blood by the specific metalloproteinase ADAMTS13, resulting in a highly characteristic cleavage

    Evaluation of Urine Proteins by Capillary Electrophoresis
    Authors:  Paula F. Navarro, Laura Gil and Salceda Fernández-Barredo, date: 08/05/2022, view: 475, Q&A: 0

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory method usually used to separate proteins in body fluids such as serum, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine. Separation of proteins in urine can have clinical applications for evaluating samples from healthy dogs and dogs with proteinuria in a qualitative way, which would not be possible with gel

    Solubilization Method for Isolation of Photosynthetic Mega- and Super-complexes from Conifer Thylakoids
    Authors:  Pushan Bag, Wolfgang P. Schröder, Stefan Jansson and Domenica Farci, date: 09/05/2021, view: 1775, Q&A: 0

    Photosynthesis is the main process by which sunlight is harvested and converted into chemical energy and has been a focal point of fundamental research in plant biology for decades. In higher plants, the process takes place in the thylakoid membranes where the two photosystems (PSI and PSII) are located. In the past few decades, the evolution of

    A Novel Method to Make Polyacrylamide Gels with Mechanical Properties Resembling those of Biological Tissues
    Authors:  Katarzyna Pogoda, Elisabeth E. Charrier and Paul A. Janmey, date: 08/20/2021, view: 2210, Q&A: 0

    Studies characterizing how cells respond to the mechanical properties of their environment have been enabled by the use of soft elastomers and hydrogels as substrates for cell culture. A limitation of most such substrates is that, although their elastic properties can be accurately controlled, their viscous properties cannot, and cells

    CENP-C Phosphorylation by CDK1 in vitro
    Authors:  Reito Watanabe, Masatoshi Hara, Mariko Ariyoshi and Tatsuo Fukagawa, date: 01/05/2021, view: 3263, Q&A: 0

    Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires the kinetochore, a large protein complex, which makes a linkage between chromosomes and spindle microtubes. An essential kinetochore component, CENP-C, is phosphorylated by Cyclin-B-Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) that is a master kinase for mitotic progression, promoting proper kinetochore

    Isoelectric Focusing to Quantify Rhodopsin Phosphorylation in Mouse Retina
    Authors:  Sowmya Bekshe Lokappa, M. Carter Cornwall and Jeannie Chen, date: 07/20/2019, view: 5142, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Rhodopsin is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates vision under dim light. Upon light exposure, rhodopsin is phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine sites at its carboxyl-terminus by rhodopsin kinase (GRK1). This, in turn, reduces its ability to activate the visual G-protein transducin. Binding of light-activated, ...
    Isolation of Thylakoid Membranes from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Analysis of Their Photosynthetic Pigment-protein Complexes by Clear Native-PAGE
    Authors:  Josef Komenda, Vendula Krynická and Tomas Zakar, date: 01/05/2019, view: 6005, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cyanobacteria represent a frequently used model organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis. They belong to prokaryotic microorganisms but their photosynthetic apparatus is quite similar to that found in algal and plant chloroplasts. The key players in light reactions of photosynthesis are Photosystem I and Photosystem II complexes (PSI and ...
    Preparation of Cerebellum Granule Neurons from Mouse or Rat Pups and Evaluation of Clostridial Neurotoxin Activity and Their Inhibitors by Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry
    Authors:  Domenico Azarnia Tehran and Marco Pirazzini, date: 07/05/2018, view: 9187, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGN) from post-natal rodents have been widely used as a model to study neuronal development, physiology and pathology. CGN cultured in vitro maintain the same features displayed in vivo by mature cerebellar granule cells, including the development of a dense neuritic network, neuronal activity, ...
    Detection of Catalase Activity by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) in Cell Extracts from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Authors:  Magdalena Pezzoni, Ramón A. Pizarro and Cristina S. Costa, date: 06/05/2018, view: 7588, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacteria in nature and as pathogens commonly face oxidative stress which causes damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. This damage is produced by the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. ROS are generated by antimicrobials, environmental ...
    Detection of Protein S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in Plant Samples on Diaminofluorescein (DAF) Gels
    Authors:  Marta Rodríguez-Ruiz, Paulo T. Mioto, José M. Palma and Francisco J. Corpas , date: 09/20/2017, view: 6852, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In plant cells, the analysis of protein S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) under physiological and adverse stress conditions is essential to understand the mechanisms of Nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling. We adapted a previously reported protocol for detecting protein SNOs in animal systems (King et al., 2005) for plant samples. Briefly, ...

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